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S-153. Florida Department of Law Enforcement Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission. S-153. S-153. CJSTC Use Of Force Application Tool Law Enforcement Scenarios Part 2 (26-50) CMS Criminal Justice Defensive Tactics CJK_0051. What subject factors influence this situation?

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slide1

S-153

Florida Department of Law EnforcementCriminal Justice Standards and Training Commission

S-153

S-153

CJSTC Use Of ForceApplication Tool

Law Enforcement Scenarios

Part 2 (26-50)

CMS Criminal Justice Defensive Tactics

CJK_0051

slide2

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Can I physically control the subject?

Could I use a nonlethal weapon not meant to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is deadly force the appropriate option to prevent death or great bodily harm to myself or others?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

CJSTC Use of Force Application Exercise

Scenarios—Part 2

(choose one)

Law Enforcement2627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748 4950

slide3

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 26

You respond as a backup officer to a local motel for a trespasser in the front lobby. The assigned officer is already on scene and radios for dispatch to send more units. As you arrive you go into the lobby, which is a small, cramped area. The hotel manager and two other people are behind the counter pointing and screaming towards the back of the lobby, where you hear what sounds like a fight taking place. As you move towards the sounds, you find the original officer on his back on the floor with a subject dressed in heavy, layered clothing kneeling over him, and they are fighting over a large knife. As you draw your firearm, you yell at the subject to get off the officer and drop the knife. The subject looks up at you, gets off the officer, and moves toward you. There is only about 10 feet between you and the subject, and the other people are directly behind you.

slide4

Dressed in heavy layered clothing

Armed with a large knife

Fighting with officer

2 officers

One is on his back on the floor fighting over a knife

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Nonlethal weapon

Deadly force

Three people in the lobby

Injury potential

Line of fire/backstop

Inside a small cramped lobby

LE Scenario 26

You respond as a backup officer to a local motel for a trespasser in the front lobby. The assigned officer is already on scene and radios for dispatch to send more units. As you arrive you go into the lobby, which is a small, cramped area. The hotel manager and two other people are behind the counter pointing and screaming towards the back of the lobby, where you hear what sounds like a fight taking place. As you move towards the sounds, you find the original officer on his back on the floor with a subject dressed in heavy, layered clothing kneeling over him, and they are fighting over a large knife. As you draw your firearm, you yell at the subject to get off the officer and drop the knife. The subject looks up at you, gets off the officer, and moves toward you. There is only about 10 feet between you and the subject, and the other people are directly behind you.

slide5

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 27

You respond to a residence in a large neighborhood in reference to an unknown subject looking through the living room window of the residence. You arrive and park one house away and approach on foot. It’s 3:00 a.m., and there are no lights. You are 5’ 8”, 145 lb, armed with your duty handgun and a flashlight. As you go around the back of the house, you see a dark figure run from a window. The person appears to be approximately 5’5”, 200 lb, with long hair. You yell, “Stop! Police!” but the person keeps running. You give chase, and as you go around the other side of the house, you catch up, and the person turns around quickly and faces you. The person is a White woman. With the light from your flashlight, you notice something in her right hand that you perceive to be a knife, and she assumes a fighting stance. As soon as she sees you, she drops the knife and puts her arms in the air.

slide6

White female

5’ 5”, 200 lb

Armed with a knife

Ultimately compliant

5’ 8”, 145 lb

Armed with handgun

Flashlight

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Nonlethal weapon

Person(s) in the house

Nature of call

3:00 am

Dark, no light

Large residential neighborhood

LE Scenario 27

You respond to a residence in a large neighborhood in reference to an unknown subject looking through the living room window of the residence. You arrive and park one house away and approach on foot. It’s 3:00 a.m., and there are no lights. You are 5’ 8”, 145 lb, armed with your duty handgun and a flashlight. As you go around the back of the house, you see a dark figure run from a window. The person appears to be approximately 5’5”, 200 lb, with long hair. You yell, “Stop! Police!” but the person keeps running. You give chase, and as you go around the other side of the house, you catch up, and the person turns around quickly and faces you. The person is a White woman. With the light from your flashlight, you notice something in her right hand that you perceive to be a knife, and she assumes a fighting stance. As soon as she sees you, she drops the knife and puts her arms in the air.

slide7

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 28

While on foot patrol around 4:00 p.m. in a housing community known for gang activity, you and your partner approach a group of five males loitering in front of unoccupied units. Approximately 30 feet from making contact, you observe one of the subjects remove a revolver from his waistband and toss it behind him, but still within reach. You covertly alert your partner of the pistol by using the agency code for “gun.” Both of you draw your weapons and order all of the subjects onto the ground. While your partner provides cover, you enter the area to secure the gun and start handcuffing the subjects. At the same time, one of the uncuffed subjects reaches into his waistband and pulls out a semiautomatic pistol gripped between his thumb and index finger and throws it away.

slide8

5 male subjects

Possible gang members

Armed with at least 2 handguns

2 officers

On foot

Weapons drawn

Number of restraint devices

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Nonlethal weapon

Possible presence of other gang members

Availability of backup

Availability of cover

Potential for injury

Potential crossfire

Housing community known for gang activity

Unoccupied units

Daylight

LE Scenario 28

While on foot patrol around 4:00 p.m. in a housing community known for gang activity, you and your partner approach a group of five males loitering in front of unoccupied units. Approximately 30 feet from making contact, you observe one of the subjects remove a revolver from his waistband and toss it behind him, but still within reach. You covertly alert your partner of the pistol by using the agency code for “gun.” Both of you draw your weapons and order all of the subjects onto the ground. While your partner provides cover, you enter the area to secure the gun and start handcuffing the subjects. At the same time, one of the uncuffed subjects reaches into his waistband and pulls out a semiautomatic pistol gripped between his thumb and index finger and throws it away.

slide9

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 29

Dispatch alerts all units to respond to the mall, advising a male subject is in the food court with a rifle, shooting randomly at people. You respond to the parking lot and meet up with several other officers to enter the food court area in groups of four. Officers are armed with M-16 rifles and handguns. As you approach the food court from the exterior doors, several people are running out toward you screaming and crying. Some have blood on them. Once inside, you see injured people all over the floor. Some are being carried out by others. You can still hear gunfire coming from the food court. Your group of four officers moves towards the gunfire. In the center of the food court, surrounded by panic stricken people, you see the male subject shooting at the people. His back is towards you, and he is walking away towards the restroom. You see five people run into the restroom ahead of the subject.

slide10

One male subject

Armed with a rifle

Numerous officers

Broke up into groups of four

Armed with M-16 rifles and handguns

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Nonlethal weapon

Deadly force

Several citizens

Several injuries

Citizens panic stricken

Citizens running

In a crowded public mall

In an open food court area

Chaos

LE Scenario 29

Dispatch alerts all units to respond to the mall, advising a male subject is in the food court with a rifle, shooting randomly at people. You respond to the parking lot and meet up with several other officers to enter the food court area in groups of four. Officers are armed with M-16 rifles and handguns. As you approach the food court from the exterior doors, several people are running out toward you screaming and crying. Some have blood on them. Once inside, you see injured people all over the floor. Some are being carried out by others. You can still hear gunfire coming from the food court. Your group of four officers moves towards the gunfire. In the center of the food court, surrounded by panic stricken people, you see the male subject shooting at the people. His back is towards you, and he is walking away towards the restroom. You see five people run into the restroom ahead of the subject.

slide11

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 30

You are patrolling in your zone when your zone partner radios for backup. He has a vehicle stopped that is occupied by two males. First is a 5’10”, 160 lb White male. The second is a 6’1”, 180 lb Black male. Your zone partner is 6’1”, 190 lb. and you are 5’7”, 200 lb. It is 8:00 p.m., and it is the middle of the summer. The sun is setting, and the traffic stop is facing west. When you arrive on scene, both subjects are still in their car. You position your patrol car to the right of your zone partner’s vehicle, and he tells you that he stopped them for unlawful speed. When he was obtaining driver and vehicle information from the driver, he noticed an odor that he believed to be burnt cannabis.

slide12

White male 5’10”, 160 lb

Black male 6’1”, 180 lb

One officer 5’7”, 200 lb

One officer 6’1”, 190 lb

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Possible drugs

Traffic

Setting sun

LE Scenario 30

You are patrolling in your zone when your zone partner radios for backup. He has a vehicle stopped that is occupied by two males. First is a 5’10”, 160 lb White male. The second is a 6’1”, 180 lb Black male. Your zone partner is 6’1”, 190 lb. and you are 5’7”, 200 lb. It is 8:00 p.m., and it is the middle of the summer. The sun is setting, and the traffic stop is facing west. When you arrive on scene, both subjects are still in their car. You position your patrol car to the right of your zone partner’s vehicle, and he tells you that he stopped them for unlawful speed. When he was obtaining driver and vehicle information from the driver, he noticed an odor that he believed to be burnt cannabis.

slide13

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapons?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 31

You are a male officer who lives in an apartment complex, and you are off duty. Your next-door neighbor is a woman who lives alone. You hear yelling and screaming coming from her apartment and then a knock on your door. It is the woman who tells you that she is having an argument with her boyfriend of two weeks. She is not injured. She has asked him to leave, but he is refusing to do so. You call 911 and request a patrol unit to respond. You go next door and identify yourself as a police officer and advise the man he needs to leave. He is 5’7”, 160 lb, and you are 5’10”, 160 lb. You are unarmed. As you make the request again, you advise him that other officers are on the way. He grabs the door frame and says, “I am not going anywhere.”

slide14

One male

5’7”, 160 lb

Arguing

Noncompliant

Braced in a doorway

One officer

Off duty

Unarmed

Called for assistance

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Other residents

Apartment complex

LE Scenario 31

You are a male officer who lives in an apartment complex, and you are off duty. Your next-door neighbor is a woman who lives alone. You hear yelling and screaming coming from her apartment and then a knock on your door. It is the woman who tells you that she is having an argument with her boyfriend of two weeks. She is not injured. She has asked him to leave, but he is refusing to do so. You call 911 and request a patrol unit to respond. You go next door and identify yourself as a police officer and advise the man he needs to leave. He is 5’7”, 160 lb, and you are 5’10”, 160 lb. You are unarmed. As you make the request again, you advise him that other officers are on the way. He grabs the door frame and says, “I am not going anywhere.”

slide15

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 32

While patrolling for smugglers two miles off shore in the Keys in your fully marked patrol boat, you notice a boat that is overloaded with passengers. When you order the driver of the boat to cut his engines, he speeds up and flees. You radio dispatch that you are in pursuit of a possible smuggling boat. As you are gaining on the fleeing boat, the driver turns and fires a handgun at you.

slide16

At least one

Armed with a handgun

One officer

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Deadly force

Several other persons on board

Assumed smuggling situation

Potential injury to innocent people

On the open water in the ocean

LE Scenario 32

While patrolling for smugglers two miles off shore in the Keys in your fully marked patrol boat, you notice a boat that is overloaded with passengers. When you order the driver of the boat to cut his engines, he speeds up and flees. You radio dispatch that you are in pursuit of a possible smuggling boat. As you are gaining on the fleeing boat, the driver turns and fires a handgun at you.

slide17

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 33

It is early evening, and you are in full uniform working patrol on an ATV in a heavily wooded area several miles from any roads. Your radio communications works intermittently at best. You hear two gunshots that you believe to be from a rifle. Turning off your ATV, you start walking toward the direction of the shots. You hear two voices yelling back and forth, and they sound like older males. There is a third gunshot from the same area. You come onto a clearing and approximately 300 feet away, see an older male holding a long gun with a bear lying at his feet. The clearing is in a protected nature park.

slide18

At least two males

Only one subject seen

Possibly armed with a rifle

One officer

In uniform

Communications are poor

Vehicle is an ATV

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Nonlethal weapon

Availability of backup

Second subject could also be armed

Cover and concealment

Heavily wooded area

Large open clearing

Several miles from any roads

LE Scenario 33

It is early evening, and you are in full uniform working patrol on an ATV in a heavily wooded area several miles from any roads. Your radio communications works intermittently at best. You hear two gunshots that you believe to be from a rifle. Turning off your ATV, you start walking toward the direction of the shots. You hear two voices yelling back and forth, and they sound like older males. There is a third gunshot from the same area. You come onto a clearing and approximately 300 feet away, see an older male holding a long gun with a bear lying at his feet. The clearing is in a protected nature park.

slide19

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 34

John Doe is a 46-year-old male. He is 6’ 2” and approximately 210 lb. Doe, a construction worker, has been unemployed the past two months. On Tuesday afternoon at 2:00 p.m., Mr. Doe places himself in a seated position directly in front of the state capitol building’s entrance and holds a sign protesting worker’s compensation laws. You advise Mr. Doe that his actions are illegal and that he must leave the entrance area to allow for public access. Doe does not respond to your commands. You advise Mr. Doe three times that if he does not move, he will be arrested. Mr. Doe begins to spit at you and states, “It will take more than you to move me!”

slide20

Male

46 years old

6’2”, 210 lb

Construction worker

Unemployed

Unresponsive to officer’s commands

Spits at officer

Made verbal threat

Availability of backup

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Possible news media

Blood borne pathogens (spit)

Potential for injury

At State Capitol building

LE Scenario 34

John Doe is a 46-year-old male. He is 6’ 2” and approximately 210 lb. Doe, a construction worker, has been unemployed the past two months. On Tuesday afternoon at 2:00 p.m., Mr. Doe places himself in a seated position directly in front of the state capitol building’s entrance and holds a sign protesting worker’s compensation laws. You advise Mr. Doe that his actions are illegal and that he must leave the entrance area to allow for public access. Doe does not respond to your commands. You advise Mr. Doe three times that if he does not move, he will be arrested. Mr. Doe begins to spit at you and states, “It will take more than you to move me!”

slide21

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 35

You and your partner respond to a report of a prowler at a residence where the home owners are out of town. The call comes in around 10:30 p.m. Upon arrival, you set up a perimeter around the house and wait for K-9 to arrive. While waiting, a young male subject runs out the back door toward you. He is approximately 5’4” to 5’7” with a slight build. He is carrying what appears to be a woman's purse. As he runs toward you, you shine your flashlight at his face and hands and yell, “Stop! Police!” He turns to run towards the backyard, which is fenced in with a 6’ privacy fence. You order him to stop and get on the ground. He does not comply and starts to climb the fence to get away.

slide22

Young male

About 5’4” to 5’7”, slight build

Running away

Carrying a woman's purse

Noncompliant

Two officers

Called for K-9 assistance

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Nonlethal weapon

Homeowners out of town

Other homes in the area

Responding to prowler

Nighttime

Residential area

6’ privacy fence

LE Scenario 35

You and your partner respond to a report of a prowler at a residence where the home owners are out of town. The call comes in around 10:30 p.m. Upon arrival, you set up a perimeter around the house and wait for K-9 to arrive. While waiting, a young male subject runs out the back door toward you. He is approximately 5’4” to 5’7” with a slight build. He is carrying what appears to be a woman's purse. As he runs towards you, you shine your flashlight at his face and hands and yell, “Stop! Police!” He turns to run toward the backyard, which is fenced in with a 6’ privacy fence. You order him to stop and get on the ground. He does not comply and starts to climb the fence to get away.

slide23

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal force?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 36

You are alone and driving through an area that has several retail stores and is crowded with pedestrians. You witness a man grab a purse from a woman. The man appears to be in his early twenties and is about 5’10” and approximately 140 lb. The suspect and victim are struggling for control of the purse. The man starts to strike the woman with his hands. No weapons are in sight.

slide24

Male, early twenties

5’10”, 140 lb

Immediate threat

Combative

One officer

On patrol in marked car

In uniform

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Nonlethal weapon

Woman refuses to relinquish purse

Injury potential to victim, officer, others

Numerous innocent bystanders

Crowded area

Roadway traffic

LE Scenario 36

You are alone and driving through an area that has several retail stores and is crowded with pedestrians. You witness a man grab a purse from a woman. The man appears to be in his early twenties and is about 5’10” and approximately 140 lb. The suspect and victim are struggling for control of the purse. The man starts to strike the woman with his hands. No weapons are in sight.

slide25

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal force?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 37

While patrolling I-75 on a summer day, you are dispatched to a rest area about two miles ahead of your location. People have complained that a woman is asking people in the rest area for money. The woman is described as 5’6”, 150 lb, wearing a coat, and her clothing is dirty. You are a female officer who is 5’8”, 145 lb. Upon arrival, you see a woman matching the description given. You get out of your patrol car and approach the woman. You notice a bulge under her coat on the right side. You ask her to turn around, place her hands on top of her head, and interlace her fingers.

slide26

One female, 5’6” , 150 lb

Wearing coat in summer

Bulge under coat

One female

5’8”, 145 lb

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical Presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

People in the rest area

Public rest area

LE Scenario 37

While patrolling I-75 on a summer day, you are dispatched to a rest area about two miles ahead of your location. People have complained that a woman is asking people in the rest area for money. The woman is described as 5’6”, 150 lb, wearing a coat, and her clothing is dirty. You are a female officer who is 5’8”, 145 lb. Upon arrival, you see a woman matching the description given. You get out of your patrol car and approach the woman. You notice a bulge under her coat on the right side. You ask her to turn around, place her hands on top of her head, and interlace her fingers.

slide27

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 38

You are on a traffic stop for a broken taillight lens on a secondary road. The vehicle you have stopped is occupied by three people. You have the driver’s information, and there are no warrants or history on the driver. While you are at your patrol car, the right front passenger gets out of the passenger side and begins to run down the street away from you. You yell, "Stop! Police!” He replies, “I don't have time for this; I have to get home.”

slide28

Three subjects

No known warrants on driver

One running away

One officer

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

On secondary road

LE Scenario 38

You are on a traffic stop for a broken taillight lens on a secondary road. The vehicle you have stopped is occupied by three people. You have the driver’s information, and there are no warrants or history on the driver. While you are at your patrol car, the right front passenger gets out of the passenger side and begins to run down the street away from you. You yell, "Stop! Police!” He replies, “I don't have time for this; I have to get home.”

slide29

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 39

You and another officer have a warrant to arrest a man for a bank burglary that occurred several weeks previously. Unable to locate the man at his apartment, you go to a nearby garage where he works as an auto mechanic. Both you and your partner approach the subject, identify yourselves, and tell him that he is under arrest. The subject suddenly hurls a wrench at you, which you manage to dodge. The subject then removes a small canister from a nearby bench and shouts, “If you guys don’t get out of my way, I’ll mace you!” You and your partner hold your positions about 30 feet from the subject, draw your handguns, and order the subject to drop the canister. The subject does not comply with the command but continues to point the canister in your direction as he moves toward you and the other officer.

slide30

One male

Wanted for felony

Noncompliant

Currently possesses a weapon that could incapacitate

Threatening statement

Two officers

Drawn weapons

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Nonlethal weapon

Deadly force

Availability of additional weapons

Additional people present

30 feet between officer and subject

Public business

LE Scenario 39

You and another officer have a warrant to arrest a man for a bank burglary that occurred several weeks previously. Unable to locate the man at his apartment, you go to a nearby garage where he works as an auto mechanic. Both you and your partner approach the subject, identify yourselves, and tell him that he is under arrest. The subject suddenly hurls a wrench at you, which you manage to dodge. The subject then removes a small canister from a nearby bench and shouts, “If you guys don’t get out of my way, I’ll mace you!” You and your partner hold your positions about 30 feet from the subject, draw your handguns, and order the subject to drop the canister. The subject does not comply with the command but continues to point the canister in your direction as he moves toward you and the other officer.

slide31

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 40

You and another officer approach a subject suspected of a nonviolent felony offense in the break room of the manufacturing plant where the subject works. You and your partner have a warrant for his arrest. As you approach the man, who is of average size and not known to be violent, you announce your identity and tell him he is under arrest. While both of you are within arm’s length, the unarmed subject executes a precise karate kick to you partner’s groin, disabling him. You back away, draw your handgun, and order the subject to surrender. The subject ignores your commands, adopts a martial arts fighting stance, and moves toward you.

slide32

One male

Average size

Martial arts skills

No known history of violence

Fighting stance

Two officers

Partner is disabled

Handgun drawn

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Nonlethal weapon

Other people present

Felony arrest

Availability of weapons

Break room of business

Distance between officer and subject

LE Scenario 40

You and another officer approach a subject suspected of a nonviolent felony offense in the break room of the manufacturing plant where the subject works. You and your partner have a warrant for his arrest. As you approach the man, who is of average size and not known to be violent, you announce your identity and tell him he is under arrest. While both of you are within arm’s length, the unarmed subject executes a precise karate kick to you partner’s groin, disabling him. You back away, draw your handgun, and order the subject to surrender. The subject ignores your commands, adopts a martial arts fighting stance, and moves toward you.

slide33

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 41

You and another officer are involved in executing the arrest warrant on a man who has committed a series of bombings over a period of years, resulting in several deaths and serious injuries. There is no information to suggest that the subject carries firearms or other weapons. When you and the other officer approach the subject, he sees you from a distance of about 25 yards and quickly turns and runs in the opposite direction. You shout, “Police! Stop!” Ignoring the commands, the subject continues to run. When it becomes apparent that neither of you can overtake the subject, you again shout, “Police! Stop, or I’ll shoot!” The subject keeps running.

slide34

One male

Wanted for felony violent crime

Specialized knowledge of explosives

Noncompliant

Running away

Two officers

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Nonlethal weapon

Deadly force

Availability of backup

Possibility of explosives present

Potential for injury

Distance between officers and subject

LE Scenario 41

You and another officer are involved in executing the arrest warrant on a man who has committed a series of bombings over a period of years, resulting in several deaths and serious injuries. There is no information to suggest that the subject carries firearms or other weapons. When you and the other officer approach the subject, he sees you from a distance of about 25 yards and quickly turns and runs in the opposite direction. You shout, “Police! Stop!” Ignoring the commands, the subject continues to run. When it becomes apparent that neither of you can overtake the subject, you again shout, “Police! Stop, or I’ll shoot!” The subject keeps running.

slide35

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 42

You and another officer possess a warrant to arrest a man on a charge of organized scheme to defraud. Both you and the other officer go to the subject’s residence, which is located next door to an elementary school, to execute the warrant. As you walk up to the front door, you hear a noise of a door slamming from the rear of the house and see a man matching the description of the subject running from the back of the house toward the nearby woods. Both you and your partner immediately give chase but are unable to close the gap. Finally, you shout, “Police! Stop, or we’ll shoot!” When the subject continues to flee, you draw your sidearm and fire a shot into the air. The subject continues to run.

slide36

One male

Warrant for nonviolent felony

Fleeing

Two officers

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Possible presence of neighbors or children

Subject’s residence

Next to elementary school

Nearby woods

LE Scenario 42

You and another officer possess a warrant to arrest a man on a charge of organized scheme to defraud. Both you and the other officer go to the subject’s residence, which is located next door to an elementary school, to execute the warrant. As you walk up to the front door, you hear a noise of a door slamming from the rear of the house and see a man matching the description of the subject running from the back of the house toward the nearby woods. Both you and your partner immediately give chase but are unable to close the gap. Finally, you shout, “Police! Stop, or we’ll shoot!” When the subject continues to flee, you draw your sidearm and fire a shot into the air. The subject continues to run.

slide37

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 43

While on patrol, you spot a stolen vehicle parked at a public beach with one male occupant inside. You call for backup and two additional officers arrive. All three of you approach the vehicle with handguns drawn. At first the suspect refused to get out or show his hands. You see him reaching for something inside the car. One of the other officers recognizes the man as a 65-year-old man who had previously been Baker Acted for suicidal threats. You order the man to get out of the vehicle numerous times. He is agitated, crying, and yelling that he wants to die. After numerous commands, the suspect gets out of the vehicle holding a handgun with the barrel in his mouth. As he walks toward you, at first he ignores commands to stop and throw down the gun. Then, he stops abruptly and fires the gun. It misfires. He then runs a few yards, turns around, puts the gun to his head, and pulls the trigger again. The gun misfires a second time.

slide38

65-year-old male

Agitated

Previous mental history

Suicidal

Noncompliant

Armed with a handgun

3 officers

Handguns drawn

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Nonlethal weapon

Deadly force

Availability of cover

Potential injury

Public beach

Bystanders could enter scene at any time

LE Scenario 43

While on patrol, you spot a stolen vehicle parked at a public beach with one male occupant inside. You call for backup and two additional officers arrive. All three of you approach the vehicle with handguns drawn. At first the suspect refused to get out or show his hands. You see him reaching for something inside the car. One of the other officers recognizes the man as a 65-year-old man who had previously been Baker Acted for suicidal threats. You order the man to get out of the vehicle numerous times. He is agitated, crying, and yelling that he wants to die. After numerous commands, the suspect gets out of the vehicle holding a handgun with the barrel in his mouth. As he walks toward you, at first he ignores commands to stop and throw down the gun. Then, he stops abruptly and fires the gun. It misfires. He then runs a few yards, turns around, puts the gun to his head, and pulls the trigger again. The gun misfires a second time.

slide39

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 44

You and another officer, both in marked cars, stop a vehicle at 1:32 a.m. that comes back as reported stolen via your communications center. When the vehicle stops, two young males get out and run away from you and the other officer. You run after the driver of the vehicle, who you think you recognize from previous arrests. During a long foot pursuit, the suspect runs onto a housing construction site and falls to the ground with a sprained ankle, arms himself with a three-foot-long piece of one-inch copper pipe, and stands back up to face you. Now that you are face to face, you confirm that the suspect is a 14-year-old, 187 lb, 5’9” 8th grader from the local middle school.

slide40

14 years old

5’9”, 187 lb

8th grader at middle school

Driving without license

Sprained ankle

Armed with impact weapon of opportunity

Two officers

Previous knowledge of subject

Physical exhaustion from foot pursuit

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Nonlethal weapon

Another subject who may intervene

Nighttime

Construction site

Limited visibility

LE Scenario 44

You and another officer, both in marked cars, stop a vehicle at 1:32 a.m. that comes back as reported stolen via your communications center. When the vehicle stops, two young males get out and run away from you and the other officer. You run after the driver of the vehicle, who you think you recognize from previous arrests. During a long foot pursuit, the suspect runs onto a housing construction site and falls to the ground with a sprained ankle, arms himself with a three-foot-long piece of one-inch copper pipe, and stands back up to face you. Now that you are face to face, you confirm that the suspect is a 14-year-old, 187 lb, 5’9” 8th grader from the local middle school.

slide41

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 45

You are driving through a neighborhood on patrol. The neighborhood has a history of drug sales, loitering, and fighting. You see three young people sitting on a large electrical box near the corner of two streets. There have been numerous arrests made in the past for possession of drugs, as recently as two days ago. You stop to talk to them and one of them takes off running. The other two stand up and keep their distance from you. You begin asking them questions, eventually advising them you are going to pat them down to make sure they don't have any weapons. Both subjects look at each other and take a step backwards.

slide42

Three subjects

Young

One subject runs

One officer

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Recent drug arrests in the area

High crime neighborhood

Street corner

LE Scenario 45

You are driving through a neighborhood on patrol. The neighborhood has a history of drug sales, loitering, and fighting. You see three young people sitting on a large electrical box near the corner of two streets. There have been numerous arrests made in the past for possession of drugs, as recently as two days ago. You stop to talk to them and one of them takes off running. The other two stand up and keep their distance from you. You begin asking them questions, eventually advising them you are going to pat them down to make sure they don't have any weapons. Both subjects look at each other and take a step backwards.

slide43

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 46

You are a 5’11”, 165 lb officer, and you are in a local restaurant on your meal break. When a patron comes up to you and says there are two young men fighting in the parking lot, you contact dispatch by your portable radio and advise them of the situation. As you enter the parking lot, you see two teenagers on the ground fighting. You do not see any weapons.

slide44

Two teen subjects

Fighting

Alone

5’11”, 165 lb

Radio

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Nonlethal weapon

Presence of restaurant patron

Parking lot

LE Scenario 46

You are a 5’11”, 165 lb officer, and you are in a local restaurant on your meal break. When a patron comes up to you and says there are two young men fighting in the parking lot, you contact dispatch by your portable radio and advise them of the situation. As you enter the parking lot, you see two teenagers on the ground fighting. You do not see any weapons.

slide45

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 47

You are on patrol in a minority neighborhood at 1:00 a.m. and observe three people sitting on an electrical box about two blocks away. You can see them because there is a full moon, and some of the street lights have not been shot out and still work. You cannot tell their race or gender at this point. As you drive towards them, a rock the size of a baseball strikes the front of your car on the hood, causing a large dent. Within seconds, the three subjects take off running, and a fourth subject joins them. One of the subjects, a young male, trips and falls, which allows you to stop your vehicle and come into contact with the subject who tripped. He attempts to get up to continue running. You can no longer see the other three subjects.

slide46

Four subjects

At least one young male

One officer

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Nonlethal weapon

Patrol car damaged from thrown rock

Potential for injury

Nighttime

Moonlight and some street lights

LE Scenario 47

You are on patrol in a minority neighborhood at 1:00 a.m. and observe three people sitting on an electrical box about two blocks away. You can see them because there is a full moon, and some of the street lights have not been shot out and still work. You cannot tell their race or gender at this point. As you drive towards them, a rock the size of a baseball strikes the front of your car on the hood, causing a large dent. Within seconds, the three subjects take off running, and a fourth subject joins them. One of the subjects, a young male, trips and falls, which allows you to stop your vehicle and come into contact with the subject who tripped. He attempts to get up to continue running. You can no longer see the other three subjects.

slide47

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 48

It is mid day, and you are conducting a traffic stop for an improper lane change. You are 6’1”, 200 lb, and the violator is Mr. Jones, who is 5’8”, 190 lb. While writing the citation, Mr. Jones stands at your right front fender. You finish writing the citation, and you approach Mr. Jones to get him to sign the citation. As you stand within the reactionary gap, Mr. Jones reaches out and attempts to grab your holstered handgun.

slide48

One male

5’8”, 190 lb

Grabs officer’s gun

One officer

6’1”, 200 lb

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Nonlethal weapon

Deadly force

Distance between officer and subject

Roadway

Traffic

Daytime

LE Scenario 48

It is mid day, and you are conducting a traffic stop for an improper lane change. You are 6’1”, 200 lb, and the violator is Mr. Jones, who is 5’8”, 190 lb. While writing the citation, Mr. Jones stands at your right front fender. You finish writing the citation, and you approach Mr. Jones to get him to sign the citation. As you stand within the reactionary gap, Mr. Jones reaches out and attempts to grab your holstered handgun.

slide49

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 49

You are a 5’10”, 160 lb female officer. While on patrol during the night shift in your assigned zone, you stop a vehicle for having only one headlight working. You have blue lights, takedown lights, and spotlight on. The driver is a 6’ male who weighs approximately 200 lb. You identify yourself and tell him the reason for the stop. You request his driver license, vehicle registration, and proof of insurance. While performing a FCIC/NCIC check, a warrant is found on the driver for failure to pay child support. You re-approach the car and inform the driver he is under arrest for the outstanding warrant. You open the door and request the driver to step out of the car. He kicks at you.

slide50

One male

6’, 200 lb

Wanted for failure to pay child support

Kicks at officer

One female officer

5’10”, 160 lb

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Verbal commands

Physical control

Nonlethal weapon

Nighttime

Roadside

Traffic

LE Scenario 49

You are a 5’10”, 160 lb female officer. While on patrol during the night shift in your assigned zone, you stop a vehicle for having only one headlight working. You have blue lights, takedown lights, and spotlight on. The driver is a 6’ male who weighs approximately 200 lb. You identify yourself and tell him the reason for the stop. You request his driver license, vehicle registration, and proof of insurance. While performing a FCIC/NCIC check, a warrant is found on the driver for failure to pay child support. You re-approach the car and inform the driver he is under arrest for the outstanding warrant. You open the door and request the driver to step out of the car. He kicks at you.

slide51

What subject factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Demeanor?

Weapons? Other?

What officer factors influence this situation?

Physical size? Training?

Experience? Other?

Physical presence?

Use verbal commands?

Use physical control?

Use nonlethal weapon?

Use deadly force?

What other factors influence this situation?

Is the subject resisting my lawful authority?

Is the subject making attacking movements NOT LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

Is the subject making attacking movements LIKELY to cause death or great bodily harm?

What environmental factors influence this situation?

Presence of others?

Weather? Location?

LE Scenario 50

At 11:00 p.m., you are driving through a neighborhood that has a documented history of various types of drug arrests and drug-related criminal activity. Other related crimes include prostitution, possession of firearms, recovered stolen vehicles, and possession of stolen property. You wait for another officer, and together you approach a group of male subjects standing on a street corner. When you approach, all of the men stand up, and you notice they are keeping their distance from you. As you manage to get close to one of them, you grab him with a shoulder lock transporter. As you begin to pat him down, you pat the outside of his front right pocket and feel an object that could be a small caliber firearm. The subject turns quickly to face you in protest of the pat down. As he does, his right front pocket is turned away from you. He pulls away from your grasp.

slide52

Group of males

Possible presence of weapon

Two officers

Given the facts provided, the officer may use one or more of the following:

Physical presence

Nighttime

Limited visibility

High crime neighborhood

LE Scenario 50

At 11:00 p.m., you are driving through a neighborhood that has a documented history of various types of drug arrests and drug-related criminal activity. Other related crimes include prostitution, possession of firearms, recovered stolen vehicles, and possession of stolen property. You wait for another officer, and together you approach a group of male subjects standing on a street corner. When you approach, all of the men stand up, and you notice they are keeping their distance from you. As you manage to get close to one of them, you grab him with a shoulder lock transporter. As you begin to pat him down, you pat the outside of his front right pocket and feel an object that could be a small caliber firearm. The subject turns quickly to face you in protest of the pat down. As he does, his right front pocket is turned away from you. He pulls away from your grasp.

Legality of seizure

s 153
S-153

CJSTC Use Of ForceApplication Tool

Law Enforcement Scenarios

Part 2 (26-50)

CMS Criminal Justice Defensive Tactics

CJK_0051

Florida Department of Law EnforcementCriminal Justice Standards and Training Commission

S-153

S-153