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  1. Definition • What is abnormal? • Video of “Ken” • How do we know when behavior is abnormal? • When do we usually call it abnormal?

  2. Abnormal Behavior? • Implicit in the Behavior • Deviation from Norms • Statistical Rarity (Infrequency) • Harmful • Subjective Distress • Impairment of Functioning

  3. Psychological Disorder? • Difference between disorder and abnormal behavior? • Working Definition • Behavior that results in dysfunction, impairment, and/or distress beyond what is culturally expected

  4. Myths and Misconceptions • No Single Definition of Psychological Abnormality • No Single Definition of Psychological Normality • Many Myths Are Associated With Mental Illness • Lazy, crazy, dumb • Weak in character • Dangerous to self or others • Mental illness is a hopeless situation

  5. Scientist-Practitioner Model • Science of Psychology? • Of abnormal behavior? • Description • Causation (Explanation and Prediction) • Treatment/Outcome (Control)

  6. Historical Overview

  7. Overview of Historical Conceptions • Major Psychological Disorders Have Existed • In all cultures • Across all time periods • The Causes and Treatment of Abnormal Behavior Varied Widely • Across cultures • Across time periods • Particularly as a function of prevailing paradigms or world views • Three Dominant Traditions Include: Supernatural, Biological, and Psychological

  8. Historical Notes • Supernatural Explanations • Deviant Behavior a Battle Between “Good” and “Evil” • Exorcism, Torture, Crude Surgeries (?) • Ancient Greeks • Biological Model • Hippocrates and Galen • “Wandering Uterus” • Humoral Theory

  9. Historical Notes (2) • Middle Ages • Possession • Make body uninhabitable • St. Vitus’ Dance

  10. Historical Notes (3) • Renaissance • Witch Hunts • Astrology (Paracelsus) • “Lunatic” • Institutionalization • Bethlehem Hospital (“Bedlam”)

  11. Historical Notes (4) • 18th and 19th Centuries • Moral Therapy • Pinel, Pussin, Rush • Dix • Return of the Biological Model • General Paresis • Syphillis • Pasteur • Early Treatments • Insulin/ECT

  12. Consequences of the Biological Tradition • Biological Causes (Brain) • Mental Illness = Physical Illness • Not Psychological • Medical View and Language • Disease model • Interventions • Biological • Insulin shock therapy, ECT, and brain surgery (i.e., lobotomy) • Since 1950’s medication • Or none at all

  13. Psychological Influences • Mesmer • Moral Therapy • Charcot • Psychoanalysis • Freud • Neo-Freudians

  14. Psychological Influences (2) • Behavioral Model • Comparative psychology • Pavlov, Watson, Skinner • Humanistic Movement • Third force • Maslow, Rogers, Perls

  15. Reconciliation? • Multidimensional Integration • Biopsychosocial • Multiply Determined • Reciprocal Causation • What about the Supernatural Tradition?

  16. Big Picture Issues to Consider • Psychogenic – Somatogenic • Biological tx – Psychological tx • Reductionistic – Holistic • Labeling – Antilabeling • Nomothetic – Idiographic • Reality focused – Subjectivity • Intrapsychic – Interpersonal (Social) • Internal – External • Individualism – Collectivism