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Standard Grade Geography. Introduction to Glaciation. Physical Landscapes - Glaciation. In this topic you will learn about: What glaciers are and how they have shaped the landscape The processes that create glacial features including plucking, abrasion and freeze-thaw weathering

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standard grade geography

Standard Grade Geography

Introduction to Glaciation

physical landscapes glaciation
Physical Landscapes - Glaciation

In this topic you will learn about:

  • What glaciers are and how they have shaped the landscape
  • The processes that create glacial features including plucking, abrasion and freeze-thaw weathering
  • Formation of upland glacial landforms through erosion e.g. corrie and u-shaped valley
  • Formation of lowland glacial landforms through erosion e.g. moraine and drumlins
  • Identifying glacial features on an OS map
  • How people use glaciated landscapes

Task:

Leave a page for your cover page. Copy the list above into your jotter.

today we are going to learn
Today we are going to learn…
  • What a glacier is and how they form
  • How plucking, abrasion and freeze-thaw weathering change the landscape
the ice age
The Ice Age

The ice age was a period of time when the temperature was much colder than it is today and large areas of land and water were covered in ice. The last ice age ended 10,000 years ago.

europe in the ice age
Europe in the Ice Age

During the Ice Age, ice spread out from the poles of the Earth. At the same time, heavy snow fell over the mountains of Britain and Europe. The snow didn’t melt and gradually turned into large rivers of ice called glaciers. These glaciers helped to change the landscape.

tasks
Tasks:
  • Write the title ‘Glaciation: The Ice Age’
  • Copy and complete the following paragraph using the word box below.

During the last ice age, ___________________ years ago, many areas of the world were __________ covered in ice, including much of the UK. In upland area, as more _____ falls it slowly becomes _____________ to form ____. Eventually the whole of ____________ _____________ was covered by a massive _____ ________. In areas of lower ground it just formed in valleys as ________. These bodies of ice moved ____________ shaping the landscape.

Northern Britain glaciers downhill

permanently ice 2 million to 10,000

ice sheet snow compressed

check your answers
Check your answers..

During the last ice age, 2 million to 10,000 years ago, many areas of the world were permanently covered in ice, including much of the UK. In upland area, as more snow falls it slowly becomes compressed to form ice Eventually the whole of Northern Britain was covered by a massive ice sheet. In areas of lower ground it just formed in valleys as glaciers. These bodies of ice moved downhill shaping the landscape.

the glacier system
The Glacier System

Like a river, a glacier works as a system with inputs, processes and outputs.

When the glacier melts, it is called ablation. Ablation is higher in summer when the glacier melts.

The glacier grows when there is higher accumulation than ablation. Usually happens in winter

Accumulation > Ablation = Glacier advances

Accumulation < Ablation = Glacier retreats

slide10
Task
  • Glue the diagram of ‘the glacier system’ into your jotter.
  • Label it using the diagram below
the shaping of the landscape
The shaping of the landscape

There are four main agents of erosion:

Wind

Waves

Rivers

Ice

Only moving ice does not effect the British Isles today – yet it has had the greatest effect on the landscape in the past.

how do glaciers shape the land
How do glaciers shape the land?
  • Glaciers help to change the landscape through erosion. The material carried by the glacier wears away the land through plucking (tearing) and abrasion (sandpaper effect)
  • This material comes mainly from freeze thaw weathering
revision freeze thaw weathering
Revision: Freeze thaw weathering

Rain, melted ice or snow

Ice

1. Water fills a crack in a rock

2. The water freezes and the crack expands

3. Repeated expansion and contraction weakened the rock and jagged bits break off.

Copy the definition of Freeze-thaw

plucking
Plucking
  • Ice freezes onto rocks, then as the glacier moves, it ‘plucks’ out pieces to leave a rough jagged surface.
  • Often results in steep slopes

Task: Copy the definition of ‘Plucking’

abrasion
Abrasion
  • This happens when pieces of rock in the ice scour and scrape the rock surface as the glacier moves. It acts like sandpaper eroding the valley sides and floor.
  • Generally produces smooth surfaces

Task: Copy the definition of ‘Abrasion’

slide16

Occurs at the top of the mountain and provides the glacier with the broken rock it uses to erode

Takesplace at the back of the hollow as the glacier ice removes rock

Takes place at the base of the hollow as the glacier scours and scrapes the rock