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Orthographic Projection. Lecture 3. Today’s Activities . Today More On Multi-view Orthographic Drawings BTG Chap 4 Orthographic Projection Teamwork Workshop Tomorrow Learn how to do isometric drawings First AutoCAD Lesson. Projection Methods (BTG pg 123). Perspective projections

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orthographic projection

Orthographic Projection

Lecture 3

Autumn Quarter

today s activities
Today’s Activities
  • Today
    • More On Multi-view Orthographic Drawings
      • BTG Chap 4
    • Orthographic Projection
    • Teamwork Workshop
  • Tomorrow
    • Learn how to do isometric drawings
    • First AutoCAD Lesson

Autumn Quarter

projection methods btg pg 123
Projection Methods (BTG pg 123)
  • Perspective projections
    • Linear 1, 2, or 3 Vanishing points
    • Aerial
  • Parallel projections
    • Oblique projection: cavalier, cabinet, or general
    • Orthographic projection
      • Axonometric
        • Isometric, dimetric, or trimetric
      • Multi-view
        • First-angle or third-angle

Autumn Quarter

first angle vs third angle

Third-angle Projection

First-angle Projection

First Angle Vs. Third Angle

From Fundamentals of Graphic Communications by Bertoline, McGraw-Hill

Autumn Quarter

review why multi view give 3 reasons
Review - Why Multi-view?Give 3 reasons
  • Most accurate description of 3-D objects for engineering, manufacturing, and construction
  • Dimensions of features are presented in true size in one or more views
  • Easy transition to 3-D database and computer modeling

Autumn Quarter

principals of orthographic projection
Principals Of Orthographic Projection
  • Every point or feature must be aligned on a parallel projector in any adjacent view.
  • Distances between any two points in a related view must be equal.
  • Features are true length or true size when the lines of sight are perpendicular to the feature.

Autumn Quarter

principals of orthographic projection1
Principals Of Orthographic Projection
  • Features are foreshortened when lines of sight are not perpendicular to the feature.
  • Areas that are the same feature will always be similar in configuration from one view to the next, except when viewed on the edge. - Example: Triangular surface always has three sides in all views
  • Parallel features will always appear parallel in all views.

Autumn Quarter

principals of orthographic projection2
Principals Of Orthographic Projection
  • Surfaces that are parallel to the lines of sight will appear as lines or edge views.
  • No two contiguous (adjacent) areas can lie in the same plane.

Autumn Quarter

hints for multiview sketching
Hints For Multiview Sketching
  • Identify the major features and overall dimensions of the object
  • Do not use your scale as a pencil guide when sketching by hand
  • Start by drawing bounding boxes with light construction lines.
  • Keep views aligned while sketching

Autumn Quarter

hints for multiview sketching1
Hints For Multiview Sketching
  • Only measure along the primary axes fi you are working from a pictorial.
  • Map inclined and oblique faces among all three views
  • Follow the precedence of lines
  • Darken all visible, hidden, and center lines

Autumn Quarter

defining hidden and center lines
Defining Hidden and Center Lines
  • Hidden Line – used to represent features that cannot be seen in the current view
  • Centerlines – used to represent symmetry and to mark the center of circles and the axes of cylinders, and the axes of symmetrical parts, such as cylinders and bolts

Autumn Quarter

precedence of lines
Precedence of Lines

VISIBLE LINES takes precedence over hidden and center lines

HIDDEN LINES take precedence over center lines

CENTER LINE does not have precedence

Autumn Quarter

and set up conventional three view



Top View

Right SideView

Front View


And… Set up Conventional Three-View

Autumn Quarter

  • Dwg 5 – A11
    • Orthographic Sketches from an Isometric
    • Due tomorrow morning
  • Dwg 6 – Team Agreement
    • Due tomorrow morning

Autumn Quarter