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Motivating Operations. Week 8: Antecedent considerations. Motivation Operations. Also referred to as: Value altering effect: establishing/abolishing Behavior altering effect: Frequency Establishing operation: Evocative effect Abolishing operation: Abative effects. Some clarification.

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motivating operations

Motivating Operations

Week 8: Antecedent considerations

motivation operations
Motivation Operations
  • Also referred to as:
    • Value altering effect: establishing/abolishing
    • Behavior altering effect: Frequency
  • Establishing operation: Evocative effect
  • Abolishing operation: Abative effects
some clarification
Some clarification
  • Not just Frequency: Magnitude
  • Behavior altering effect is not just due to encounter with change in reinforcement frequency: Extinction!
  • SD is not = MO
    • SD: Differential availability of reinforcement for a behavior
    • MO: differential reinforcer effectiveness of an environmental event.
three types of motivating operations
Three types of Motivating Operations
  • Surrogate: Stimulus paired with another
    • Not likely to be important to study
  • Reflexive: Stimulus that preceded some form of worsening improvement
    • Thanks and holding doors open for people
  • Transitive: Stimulus that alters value of another stimulus
    • Must be just as available (Dr. asking for scalpel)
8 umo
  • Sex
  • Temperature
  • Pain
  • Food
  • Water
  • Sleep
  • Activity
  • Oxygen
  • Key Point: These are not SD’s because to have an SD you must have an Sdelta (neutral stimulus) to signal unavailability of reinforcement is a possible
altered states
Altered States
  • Drugs
  • Anxiety
  • Do not cause behavior! They interact with environment however.
    • Moderation Variables.
what about treatment
What about treatment?
  • You will never get rid of the UMO effects
  • You will only weaken momentarily
  • Must development treatment that focuses on acceptable behavior to gain access to the reinforcer
umos punishment
UMOs & Punishment
  • Difficult to know for sure
  • Observation of the abative effect requires the evocative effect of an MO for reinforcement with respect to the punished behavior.
multiple effects
Multiple Effects
  • Evocative effect: Do what you gotta do
  • Punishment effect: Decreases probability you engage in the behavior that preceded the MO
smirc model
  • Stimulus
  • Motiviating Operation
  • Individual
  • Response
  • Consequence
behavior analytic problem solving model

Behavior Analytic Problem-Solving Model

Beginning to pull it all together

  • Contextual Variables:
    • Behavior occurs in some contexts but not others
  • Antecedent Stimuli: Environmental Triggers
  • Individual Mediators: Internal Triggers
    • UMO & CMO
  • Individual Behavior Deficits:
    • Try to reframe all behavior this way (your turn)
  • Behavior:
    • Not enough R+ or too much response effort
  • Consequences:
    • Consider function (careful of response topography and response class).
3 types of stimuli
3 Types of Stimuli
  • Discriminative Stimulus: Reinforcement is available (SD)
  • Neutral Stimulus: No reinforcement or punishment is available (SΔ )
  • Warning Stimulus: Punishments is available
discrimination training
Discrimination Training
  • Learning when to behave and when not to behave
  • Reinforcing a response in presence of one stimulus but not another

e. g. Colors

what about you
What about you?
  • When have you engaged in stimulus discrimination today?
stimulus control
Stimulus Control
  • Degree of correlation between stimulus and response
  • Degree to which a behavior occurs in presence of a specific stimulus
    • e.g. Traffic light
  • Stimulus Generalization Gradient: Probability of response reinforced in one stimulus condition are emitted in the presence of untrained stimuli.
what about you1
What about you?
  • What behaviors do you have that are under stimulus control?
let s discriminate

Let’s discriminate

Learning an Alien Language

effective discrimination training
Effective discrimination training
  • Choose distinct signals
  • Minimize opportunities for error
    • Minimize stimulus array
  • Maximize Number of learning trials
  • Make use of rules
stimulus generalization
Stimulus Generalization
  • Responding similarly across two or more stimuli

√ The more the stimuli are alike the more likely the response to take place

e.g. finding your car

what about you2
What about you?
  • What behaviors/responses do you generalize across settings?
  • Can that response always be generalized?
  • Should that response always be generalized?
classes of stimuli
Classes of Stimuli

Stimulus Class: Set of stimuli with similar characteristics in common

AKA: Concept

Equivalence Class: Set of stimuli with different characteristics, but represent the same thing

e.g. Written name, verbal name, picture of person

inducing stimuli classes
Inducing Stimuli Classes

√ Explicit training is not necessarily needed to induce stimulus control across stimuli

  • Symmetry: A = B
  • Reflexivity: A = A
  • Transivity: A = B; B = C; A = C
discriminating discrimination among other discriminative stimuli
Discriminating discrimination among other discriminative stimuli

Stimulus discrimination and escape

e.g. hailing a taxi out in the cold: Must have no patrons in it.

Stimulus discrimination and punishment

e.g. Boiling pan: Do not touch or you get burned.

stimulus discrimination and differential reinforcement
Stimulus Discrimination and Differential Reinforcement

DR- 2 responses (right way and wrong way)and 1 stimulus

e.g. Asking mom for money

SD- Two stimuli (Right signal wrong Signal) and 1 response

e.g. Asking mom OR dad for money?

requirements for stimulus control
Requirements for stimulus control
  • Attention of the subject
  • Sensory capabilities of the subject
  • The stimulus must stand out relative to other stimuli.