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Two axes used to describe choices made when constructing a sentence. Syntagmatic axis: describes order in which words are placed. Paradigmatic axis: refers to all the other worlds that could have been used in a particular space. Sentences can be passive or active.

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two axes used to describe choices made when constructing a sentence

Two axes used to describe choices made when constructing a sentence

Syntagmatic axis: describes order in which words are placed.

Paradigmatic axis: refers to all the other worlds that could have been used in a particular space

for example

Sentences can be passive or active.

  • Active = clear doer of action: Scott kicked the ball.
  • Passive = focus on the object: The cake was eaten by Mary.
    • The bill was passed. (These choices matter)
For example…
to pay attention we need different ways of talking about language choices transitivity analysis

Concerned with who does what to whom.

  • Instead of standard grammar: noun, verb, noun or subject, verb, object (Mary ate the cake. Versus The cake was eaten by Mary).
  • New language = actor, process, goal, circumstances.
To pay attention we need different ways of talking about language choices: Transitivity Analysis
slide4

ACTOR PROCESS GOAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Mary ate the cake in the rain.

GOAL = the thing affected by the process

GOAL PROCESS CIRCUMSTANCES ACTOR

The cake was eaten in the rain by Mary.

GOAL PROCESS CIRCUMSTANCE

Scientist ‘misquoted’ on swine flu origin. = MISSING ACTOR!

newspeak

Language created by George Orwell in his novel 1985. Government used restricted language in order to control thought and maintain order.

  • Ownlife = individualism and eccentricity
  • Unpersons = those no longer living or known to be living
  • Duckspeak = to quack like a duck (insult to an opponent; compliment to a friend)
  • Doublethink = to know and not know; to know the truth but hold to the lie
Newspeak
winterval

This festive season, you'll no doubt be sending and receiving Winterval cards, decorating your beautiful Winterval tree, and tucking into a delicious portion of Winterval pudding. If all this sounds a bit odd, consider that the word Christmas is rather biased towards one particular religious persuasion. In an effort to embrace all religions, not just Christianity, during the festive season, the term Winterval has been suggested as a politically-correct alternative which potentially encompasses Jewish Hanukkah, Afro-Caribbean Kwanzaa, Hindu Diwali and pagan festivals such as Yule or the winter solstice.

Winterval
differently abled

Handicapped

  • term was coined by the US Democratic National Committee in the early 1980s
Differently abled
senior

Elderly, old person

  • Pat McVicar, assistant director with the local Area Agency on Aging in California, interesting. She said that the term “elderly” should be thrown out altogether – the preferred terminology is “seniors” or “older adults.”
Senior
syntax

the various parts that make up a sentence, how the parts relate to each other and to the whole (grammar).

SYNTAX
parts of syntax

Constituency: sentences are made up of structural units called constituents.

  • Linguists approach sentences as consisting of largest structural units first. Eg:  in a coordinate sentence two clauses and conjunction joining them.  The point is to identify "structural units" that are relevant to organization
PARTS OF SYNTAX
slide18

morpheme:  smallest unit of language that bears meaning - word or part of a word

  • Dog – can’t be divided into smaller structural parts = free morpheme
  • S at end of dogs
  • Bi in bicycle
  • Ed on lauged = bound morphemes; can’t stand alone
slide19

Referring expressions = Noun phrases (Judge Wapner, The lawyer)

  • predication =saying something about the referring expression = verb phrases (has a daughter, swore on the bible).
slide21

Four Sentence Types

  • Simple sentences = one independent clause (must have verb)
  • Compound sentences = two clauses joined with a coordinating conjunction
slide22

Four Sentence Types

  • Simple sentences = one independent clause (must have verb)
  • Compound sentences = two clauses joined with a coordinating conjunction
  • Complex = one independent clause attached to a dependent clause with subordinating word choice (while, although, after, unless, until)
slide23

Four Sentence Types

  • Simple sentences = one independent clause (must have verb)
  • Compound sentences = two independent clauses joined with a coordinating conjunction
  • Complex = one independent clause attached to a dependent clause with subordinating word choice (while, although, after, unless, until)
  • Compound complex = two independent clauses + one or more dependent clause