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The Pure Land Buddhist Temple in Japan

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  1. The Pure Land Buddhist Temple in Japan
  2. The Phoenix Hall of the Byodo-in Buddhist Temple, Uji, Japan, 11th-century 1052-53
  3. Pure Land Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism Horyuji Buddhist Temple, Nara, Japan, 670-714 Amida Buddha presides over the Pure Western Land universe
  4. I. Context: Pure Land Buddhism finds growing acceptance in Japan in the Heian period Pure Land Buddhism (Jodo) enters Japan in the 600s Esoteric Tendai and Shingon forms of Buddhism enter Japan in ca. 805 New schools of Buddhism originate in India Amida’s Western Paradise (Pure Land), cave painting, China Esoteric Shingonmandala, Japan
  5. I. A. Site plans of Esoteric monasteries: away from the regular geometric form of Nara period monasteries Mahayana Buddhism Esoteric Shingon Buddhism Horyuji Buddhist Temple, Nara, Japan, 670-714 Muroji Buddhist Temple, Murou, Japan, 780-805
  6. I. A. 1. Why were monasteries of the Esoteric sects of Buddhism typically not in remote locations? Esoteric Tendai Buddhism Esoteric Shingon Buddhism Seigantogi Buddhist Temple, near Kumano, Japan, 750-850 Muroji Buddhist Temple, Murou, Japan, 780-805
  7. I. B. What did Pure Land Buddhism offer believers? Tendai Buddhist mandala (Esoteric) Pure Land Buddhist mandala silk hanging scroll 84'' high, 13th century silk hanging scroll 36'' high, 13th century
  8. I. C. Why did its popularity suddenly rise among the aristocratic class in the Heian period? mappo – last great age of Buddhism staring in 1052 Kyoto (Heian), Japan – imperial capital
  9. II. Theory: Pure Land Buddhism and architectural theory Amida’s Western Paradise, Dunhuang cave painting, China, 7th – 8th century Essentials of Salvation (985) After the believer is born into this land and when he experiences the pleasures of the first opening of the lotus, his joy becomes a hundred times greater than before. It is comparable to a blind man gaining sight for the first time, or to entering a royal palace directly after leaving some rural region. Looking at his own body, it becomes purplish gold in color. He is gowned naturally in jeweled garments. Rings, bracelets, a crown of jewels, and other ornaments in countless profusion adorn his body. And when he looks upon the light radiating from the Buddha, he obtains pure vision, and because of his experiences in former lives, he hears the sound of all things. And no matter what color he may see or what sound he may hear, it is a thing of marvel. Such is the ornamentation of space above that the eye becomes lost in the traces of clouds. The melody of the wheel of the wonderful Law as it turns flows throughout the land of jeweled sound. Palaces, halls, forests, and ponds shine and glitter everywhere. Flocks of wild ducks, geese, and mandarin ducks fly about in the distance and near at hand. One may see multitudes from all the worlds being born into this land like sudden showers of rain” (from the Essentials of Salvation by Genshin).
  10. II. A. What did Pure Land writings offer to designers that could transform temple design? recovery of the mind’s purity through light Amida Buddha Pure Land Buddhist mandala, 13th century from Hebei province, China Liao Dynasty (907-1125)
  11. II. A. Tendai Buddhist mandala, 13th century Pure Land Buddhist mandala, 13th century
  12. III. Site plans of Pure Land Buddhist monasteries A. Why were Pure Land Buddhist monasteries like and unlike Esoteric sects in plan and site? Pure Land Buddhism Esoteric Shingon Buddhism Muroji Buddhist Temple, Murou, Japan, 780-805 Byodo-in Temple, 1052-53
  13. III. A. Pure Land Byodo-in on the Uji River capital city Kyoto, Japan
  14. III. B. Given the history of Pure Land’s growing acceptance came with the rise of Fujiwara nobility, why might the Amida image hall (the Phoenix Hall) have its unique form? Chinese palace seen in Pure Land Paradise in Dunhuang cave paintings, China, 7th – 8th century Phoenix Hall, Byodo-in Temple
  15. III. B. Aristocratic residence type of Heian period Phoenix Hall, Byodo-in Temple a shinden-zukuri type residence
  16. IV. Pure Land Ritual  A. How is Pure Land ritual (meditation) enhanced by the site design on an artificial pond? Phoenix Hall, Byodo-in Temple
  17. IV. A. Phoenix Hall
  18. IV. B. How is Pure Land salvation reflected in the design of the interior of the Phoenix Hall in its: 1. plan? Phoenix Hall
  19. IV. B. 1. Phoenix Hall
  20. IV. B. 2. materials and ornament Phoenix Hall – painted doors middle class, upper rank lower class, upper rank
  21. IV. B. 2. Phoenix Hall north door: Early Spring Flautist pillar painting
  22. IV. B. 2. Phoenix Hall – Statue of Amida
  23. IV. B. 2. Phoenix Hall – Statue of Amida
  24. IV. B. 2. The Phoenix Hall at the Byodo-in Buddhist Temple
  25. V. The architecture of the Phoenix Hall between old and new modes of design The Phoenix Hall
  26. V. A. What aspects of the design of the Phoenix Hall reference the older Nara period? V. B. Which features anticipate future developments in the Heian period? flooring and foundations Nara period Heian period Image hall of Horyuji Buddhist temple Phoenix Hall (Amida image hall) of Buddhist Byodo-in temple
  27. V. A. & B Phoenix Hall
  28. V. A. & B vertical posts Nara period Heian period: squared and beveled posts Phoenix Hall (Amida image hall) of Buddhist Byodo-in temple Image hall of Horyuji Buddhist temple
  29. V. A. & B roof and bracketing system Nara period Heian period Image hall of Horyuji Buddhist temple Phoenix Hall (Amida image hall) of Buddhist Byodo-in temple
  30. V. A. & B two basic parts of East Asian bracketing system = bearing block + bracket arm
  31. V. A. & B simple bracket system higher farther outward three-block bracket projecting three-block
  32. V. A. & B Phoenix Hall steeper, higher, farther two-step projecting complex with tail rafter
  33. V. A. & B one innovation: diagonal supports its own brackets forward and to the side Phoenix Hall Nara period Image hall of Horyuji Buddhist temple
  34. V. A. & B Phoenix Hall