Optogenetics Use of optics & Use of genetics http://www.livescience.com/29340-optogenetics-brain-research-breakthrough-nsf-bts.html
Transgenic approaches are easy with fruit flies www.domyownpestcontrol.com
How could we target ChR to motor neurons? OK371-Gal4 x UAS-ChR2 In other words, what gene is OK371?
Human Brain https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serotonin
Adult Drosophila brain with neurons stained green and the neurotransmitter serotonin stained red.
Green are serotonin containing neurons http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/10/2/407/htm
Experiments • Larva • Motor neurons • Examine acute behavioral changes
Mechanism of Channelrhodopsin2 in motor neurons Channelrhodopsin2 inactivated (normal light) Na+ Ca2+ ChR2 NO Muscle contraction
Mechanism of Channelrhodopsin2 in motor neurons Channelrhodopsin2 activated (blue light) Bluelight Na+ Ca2+ ChR2 Glutamate Glutamate instead of Acetylcholine in Drosophila Muscle contraction
Neuromuscular Junction ES Presynaptic terminal Synaptic cleft Postsynaptic target Glutamate Receptors
What would happen with the Minis at fly NMJ with ChR2 activation?