17.2 – The Northern Renaissance. The Northern Renaissance. Main Idea Renaissance ideas soon spread beyond Italy to northern Europe by means of trade, travel, and printed material, influencing the art and ideas of the north. Reading Focus How did the Renaissance spread to northern Europe?
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The Northern Renaissance Main Idea Renaissance ideas soon spread beyond Italy to northern Europe by means of trade, travel, and printed material, influencing the art and ideas of the north. • Reading Focus • How did the Renaissance spread to northern Europe? • What contributions did writers and philosophers make to the northern Renaissance? • How did the works of northern artists differ from those of the Italian Renaissance?
Trading Goods Trading Ideas • As cities grew, vast trading network spread across northern Europe • Network dominated by Hanseatic League, merchant organization, 1200s to 1400s • Protected members from pirates, other hazards • Built lighthouses, trained ship captains • Northern Europeans traded ideas, goods; spread Italian Renaissance north • Fleeing violence, Italian artists brought humanist ideas, painting techniques north • Northern scholars traveled to Italy, brought ideas home • Universities started in France, Netherlands, Germany The Renaissance Spreads North Trade, the movement of artists and scholars, and the development of printing helped spread Renaissance ideas north from Italy.
A Book Revolution • Printing Press • Mid-1400s, Johannes Gutenberg cast letters of alphabet on metal plates, locked metal plates on wooden press; perfected movable type printing • Result, one of most dramatic upheavals world has ever known • Easier access to books prompted more people to learn to read, cheaper too • Bible • Gutenberg’s first publication, 1,282-page Bible • Explosion of printed material quickly spread Renaissance ideas
Desiderius Erasmus Sir Thomas More Christine de Pisan • Combined Christian ideas, humanism • Wrote of pure, simple Christian life, educating children • Fanned flames of discontent • Roman Catholic Church censored, condemned works • More’s best-known work, Utopia, contains criticisms of English government, society • Presents vision of perfect, non-existent society based on reason • Italian-born writer focused on role of women in society • Grew up in French court of Charles V; turned to writing when widowed • Championed equality, education for women Philosophers and Writers Northern humanists expressed their own ideas Combined interests of theology, fiction and history
Spread Renaissance Ideas William Shakespeare • Use of language, choice of themes made plays appealing even to uneducated • Plays helped spread ideas of Renaissance to mass audience • Focused on lives of realistic characters, unlike morality plays • By Shakespeare’s death, 1616, London scene of thriving theatre district • Many believe English playwright WilliamShakespeare greatest writer • Plots not original, but treatments of them masterful • Drew inspiration from ancient, contemporary literature • Knowledge of natural science, humanist topics expressed in plays Shakespeare and His Characters
Like literary counterparts, northern European artists influenced by Italian Renaissance Adopted Italian techniques Works reflected more realistic view of humanity Italian artists tried to capture beauty of Greek, Roman gods in paintings Northern artists tried to depictpeople as they really were Artists Dürer and Others • 1400s, German artist Albrecht Dürer visited Italy • On return, used Italian techniques of realism, perspective • Oil paintings exhibit features unique to northern Renaissance • Oils reproduced textures; reflection of objects, scenes outside window
Flemish School Everyday Life • Artists of Netherlands developed own style, Flemish School • Used technique perfected by Jan van Eyck, 1400s • Fused the everyday with religious; lit candle represents God’s presence • 1500s, Pieter Brueghel the Elder used Italian techniques • Paintings showed scenes from everyday peasant life • Different from mythological scenes of Italian paintings
Legacies of the Renaissance • Changes in the Arts • Techniques draw on the Greeks & Romans • Depictions more realistic • Both secular & religious • Writers use vernacular • Individual achievement recognized • Changes is Society • Printing creates a learning revolution • Revolution leads to discoveries in other fields • Laws clearer, more defined • Humanist ideas change idea of how to live life • People begin to question politics & religion