Muhammad and Islamic Beliefs The history of the beginnings of Islam
Muhammad’s Early Life • Muhammad was born in the year 570 C.E. in the city of Mecca in modern Saudi Arabia • In his teens, he worked as a caravan leader on a trade route • A wealthy widow named Khadija put him in charge of her business and when Muhammad was 25, Khadija proposed marriage.
Muhammad’s Teachings • Muhammad had a series of revelations from Allah (God) and in 613 C.E. he began to share these with other people • Some of the things that Muhammad said were: all people should worship Allah, there is only one god, and that all people who believed were equal (even the rich and the poor)
Muhammad’s Followers • The poor people of Mecca liked the message that they were equal to the rich, but the rich didn’t like that at all • Because of his teachings, the rich ran him out of town and he moved to Yathrib in 622 C.E. • The people of Yathrib became followers of Muhammad and were very devoted to him
Muhammad in Madinah • The town of Yathrib changed its name to Madinah, which means “the city of the prophet” • Muhammad said that Muslims should place their loyalty in the Islamic community instead of in their tribes • Muhammad was declared the Islamic community’s judge and commander in chief
Makkah (Mecca) Invades • The people of Mecca saw Muhammad as a threat to their way of life and so they invaded Madinah • Muhammad and his supporters won the fight and entered Mecca in 630 C.E. • The Kaaba, which was used to worship idols, was turned into a Muslim holy place
The Kaaba • The Kaaba is a large black cube structure that once held idols of polytheistic religions • When the Muslims took over Mecca they turned the Kaaba into a holy Muslim place
Muhammad’s Death and Results • Muhammad died after an illness in Madinah in the year 632 C.E. • He left a monotheistic religion in the Arab community • He also left a political system that combined religion and politics • Islamic Empires were able to preserve knowledge (algebra, astrolabe, etc.)
Muslims believe that there is only one god and the Muslim word for god is Allah Islam believes that the prophets of God should be believed--the last prophet was Muhammad so he is considered most right Other prophets include Jesus, Abraham, Moses, David, and Solomon Muslims also believe that there is a final judgement when you die when Allah judges you based on your deeds Basic Beliefs of Islam
Muslim Connection to Christianity and Judaism • Historical stories of the Jews are also in Islam • Muhammad was a descendent of Abraham (grandfather of the 12 tribes of Israel) • Jesus is mentioned in the Qur’an--Allah saved Jesus from the cross, but not necessarily that he was actually dead and then came back to life in a divine miracle • Jesus was A messiah and he was a prophet of Allah, but he did not die for the sins of people and he was not divine
Five Pillars of Islam • These five beliefs are expected of all Muslims who are physically and financially able to do so. • Faith (iman) • Fasting (sawm) • Pilgrimage (hajj) • Prayer (salah) • Charity (zakah)
Islam’s Political Influence • Islam CREATED a political structure around which an empire could build • Spread of Islam was encouraged by the fact that Muslims could not fight against, sell into slavery, or make too much money off of other Muslims • Cultural activities of Islam (praying 5 times a day, fasting, etc.) gave people something in common even if they didn’t agree on anything else.