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MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES By Peter S. Cartwright, PE CWQA PROFESIONAL DEVELOPMENT SEMINAR May 4, 2007 PowerPoint Presentation
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MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES By Peter S. Cartwright, PE CWQA PROFESIONAL DEVELOPMENT SEMINAR May 4, 2007 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Cartwright Consulting Co. United States Office European office 8324 16 th Avenue South President Kennedylaan 94 Minneapolis, MN 55425-1742 2343 GT Oegstgeest Phone: (952) 854-4911 The Netherlands Fax: (952) 854-6964 Phone: 31-71-5154417

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slide1

Cartwright Consulting Co.

United States Office European office

8324 16th Avenue South President Kennedylaan 94

Minneapolis, MN 55425-1742 2343 GT Oegstgeest

Phone: (952) 854-4911 The Netherlands

Fax: (952) 854-6964 Phone: 31-71-5154417

pscartwright@msn.com Fax: 31-71-5156636

www.cartwright-consulting.com

MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES

By

Peter S. Cartwright, PE

CWQA PROFESIONAL

DEVELOPMENT SEMINAR

May 4, 2007

slide4

Particle Size

Yeast Cell = 3.00 microns

Bacteria = 0.45 microns

Ferric Iron Molecule = 0.001 microns

Human Hair ~ 75 microns

slide6

Feed

Barrier media

Permeate or

Filtrate

Conventional “dead-end” Filtration

slide7

Feed

Concentrate

Membrane

Permeate

Crossflow Filtration

slide8

“Sweeping” by Tangential Flow

Concentrate

Feed

Membrane

Permeate

slide9

Membrane Separation Technologies Features

  • Continuous process resulting in automatic and uninterrupted operation
  • Low energy utilization involving neither phase nor temperature changes
  • Modular design – no significant size limitations
  • Minimal moving parts with low maintenance requirements
  • No effect on form or chemistry of the contaminant
  • Discrete membrane barrier to ensure physical separation
  • No chemical addition requirements
slide15

Higher

concentration

Lower

concentration

Semi-permeable

Membrane

Osmosis

slide16

Level rises

Difference in

level is

Osmotic

Pressure

Water Flow

Osmosis

slide17

Pressure

Can force (reverse)

osmotic flow to

lower-concentration

side

Semi-permeable

Membrane

Reverse Osmosis

slide18

Pressure

Feed Water

Concentrate

Flow

Fresh water

Semi-permeable

Membrane

Reverse Osmosis Applied

slide22

Pure Water Layer Theory

High

Pressure

Bulk

Solution

Pure

Water

Layer

o

7A

Membrane

Atmospheric Pressure

slide23

RO Fundamentals

  • Semi-permeable membrane uses two mechanisms for removal of impurities:

Rejection (repels mineral salts involving dielectric and molecular forces)

Sieving (does not allow particulate matter to pass on a small scale ~0.0005 microns. Tiny organics and gas molecules can pass.)

slide24

Osmotic Pressure

Equation

p = 1.19(T + 273) SMi

p = Osmotic Pressure (psi)

T = Water Temperature (oC)

Mi = Molar Concentration of

individual ions (gmol/L)

slide26

Sodium chloride

Lithium chloride

Magnesium

sulfate

Ethylene glycol

Ethyl alcohol

Zinc sulfate

Seawater

Fructose

Sucrose

500

400

300

Osmotic Pressure (psi)

200

100

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

Concentration in Water (w/w %)

Solute Concentration as a Function of Osmotic Pressure

slide27

RO Performance Equations

  • Osmotic Pressure: The pressure, due to the effect of TDS in the feed water, that must be overcome in order to generate product water flow.
  • For monovalent salts, assume 1 psi of osmotic pressure per 100 mg/L of TDS.
  • For multivalent salts, assume ½ psi of osmotic pressure per 100 mg/L of TDS.
slide28

R.O. Contaminant Rejection

CTA-Cellulosic Membrane

TFC-Thin Film Composite

All rejections nominal

for 60 psi net pressure

and at 77oF

slide38

Membrane Element Configuration Comparison

* Membrane area per unit volume of element ** Tolerance to suspended solids

slide39

Feed

Permeate

Pump

Concentrate

Membrane Schematic

slide42

POU RO Performance Equations

  • Production Rate: The rate at which product water is made directly from the RO membrane. It is customarily expressed at Standard Operating Conditions (50-60 psi for POU at 77oF) by applying the appropriate conversion factors.
  • Conversion Factor: ml/min x 0.38 = gal/day
slide43

Reverse Osmosis Recovery

  • Recovery: the percentage of feed water that passes through the membrane as product water. (i.e. how efficiently water is being used to make product water)
slide44

Reverse Osmosis Recovery

  • Example: A membrane is making 10 gallons per day as product, while 40 gallons go to drain. What is the recovery?
  • Feed Water = product + reject = 10 + 40 = 50
  • Recovery = product/feed = 10/50 = 20%
  • Note: at 50% recovery, reject water TDS is double that of the feed water
slide47

RO System Controls

  • Product Water Check Valve: Protects membrane from back pressure.
  • Automatic Shut-off Valve: Maintains storage tank pressure between ½ to 2/3 feed line pressure.
  • Brine Flow Restrictor: Maintain reject rinse flow at 3x to 5x product flow; Membrane life and water quality; Prevent water wasting.