The European Enlightenment. 1650-1800. Objective. SWBAT explain how science led to the Enlightenment SWBAT Compare the ideas of Locke and Hobbes. Do Now 12/6/12. Have your homework out – ready to go over Answer the following in your notes: What is the Enlightenment?
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SWBAT explain how science led to the Enlightenment
SWBAT Compare the ideas of Locke and Hobbes
Have your homework out – ready to go over
Answer the following in your notes:
What is the Enlightenment?
How do you think events such as the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution sparked new ideas of the Enlightenment?
Impact of the Enlightenment
Growth of Secular Ideas;
Importance of Education
BACON and DESCARTES:
Reason & Logic
Belief in Progress
American and French Revolutions,
HOBBES and ROUSSEAU:
The Social Contract
Declaration of Independence, Rights of Man and Citizen, Growth of Individualism
Natural Rights—Life, Liberty, and Property
U.S. Bill of Rights and
French, U.S., and Latin American Constitutions
Separation of Powers
Abolishment of Torture and
BECCARIA:Reform of Criminal Justice System
Scientific Revolution Enlightenment
1700s scientists expanded European knowledge in Scientific Revolution
Scientific successes created great confidence in the power of REASON
If people used reason to find laws that governed the physical world, why not use reason to discover natural laws (laws that govern human nature)
With the use of REASON, Enlightenment thinkers could solve every social, political, and economic problem
Two thinkers: John Locke and Thomas Hobbes
Philosophes– “lovers of wisdom”
Enlightenment thinkers that applied the methods of science to better understand and improve society
1588 - 1679
Saw English Civil War
Believes society must be ruled by absolute monarch
Humans are nasty and brutal by nature
Social contract – give up freedom for an organized society
Saw Glorious Revolution
Natural law: use of reason to study human behavior and create binding rules of moral behavior
Divine purpose for humanity
Life, liberty, property
Two Treaties of Government
believed that the state of nature was good.
if governments could not do as much for people than they did for themselves in the state of nature, then government could be dismantled.
has a negative view toward human nature “nasty, brutal….”;
the human mind is like a blank slate.
a contract exists between the king and the people; but once the king becomes king, he cannot be overthrown & obtains absolute power.
government conditional & can be overthrown if it does not represent the people
Explain how the leaders of the Scientific Revolution influenced the philosophes.
How did the Glorious Revolution influence the ideas of the Enlightenment?
How might the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, and the U.S. Constitution be considered to be documents of the Age of Enlightenment?
Pick up the “Face-off” & Locke and Hobbes worksheets
take out your notes on Locke & Hobbes
Participate in a CONSTRUCTIVE manner
3 times – 10 points
2 times – 8 points
1 time – 5 points
times – points
Why would the basic nature of humans be a topic of discussion?
Why would this be important for developing a concept for an ideal form of government?
How would these writers have come up with their point of view?
How could Locke and Hobbes have such different conclusions?
Think about your personal experiences & the role environment plays in forming YOUR ideas.
There are three major causes of fighting...
Competition: People see themselves as in competition with each other.(invade for gain)
Diffidence: People lack self confidence and thus tend to overcompensate for it. (invade for safety)
Glory: People tend to desire glory. They expect others to value them as well as they value themselves. (invade for reputation)
How can you attain peace?
SWBAT summarize how economic thinking changed during the enlightenment
How did Locke and Hobbes differ in their views on the role of government?
What convinced educated Europeans to accept the power of reason?
Fill out your chart for the following individuals:
Francois-Marie Arouet Voltaire (1694-1778)
Targeted corrupt officials
Battled inequality, injustice, and superstition
Disagreed with slave trade & religious prejudice
Offended French government and Catholic Church
Bastille prison twice
Exiled – forced to leave Paris
Defended principles of freedom of speech
Encyclopedias “change the general way of thinking”
Explained government, philosophy, and religion
articles from Voltaire and Montesquieu
Denounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, urged education for all
Attacked divine right and other traditions
Pope excommunication to any Catholic that read
Spread Enlightenment ideas
Wrote The Social Contract
People by nature are good corrupt by evils of society
Society = too many limitations on people’s behavior
Some controls – but should be minimal
Only governments that are freely elected should impose these controls
“general will” - best conscience of the people
Good of the community should be placed above individual interests
Thomas Paine & Marquis de Lafayette adopt this view
“free and equal” did not apply to women
natural rights limited to areas of home and family
mid to late 1700s women protested this view
Argued they were being excluded from social contract
Wollstonecraft accepted women’s duty to be a good mother
Should be able to determine their best interest without depending on men
1792: Vindication of Rights of Woman
Equal education for boys and girls
Education would help women participate equally with men
Answer questions 1 & 2