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The European Enlightenment. 1650-1800. Objective. SWBAT explain how science led to the Enlightenment SWBAT Compare the ideas of Locke and Hobbes. Do Now 12/6/12. Have your homework out – ready to go over Answer the following in your notes: What is the Enlightenment?

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SWBAT explain how science led to the Enlightenment

SWBAT Compare the ideas of Locke and Hobbes

do now 12 6 12
Do Now 12/6/12

Have your homework out – ready to go over

Answer the following in your notes:

What is the Enlightenment?

How do you think events such as the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution sparked new ideas of the Enlightenment?


Foundations of the Enlightenment

Impact of the Enlightenment

Growth of Secular Ideas;

Importance of Education


Reason & Logic

Belief in Progress


Natural Law

American and French Revolutions,

Independence Movements


The Social Contract


Declaration of Independence, Rights of Man and Citizen, Growth of Individualism


Natural Rights—Life, Liberty, and Property

U.S. Bill of Rights and

Enlightened Monarchies


Religious Tolerance

French, U.S., and Latin American Constitutions


Separation of Powers

Abolishment of Torture and

Capital Punishment

BECCARIA:Reform of Criminal Justice System

the age of reason
The Age of Reason

Scientific Revolution  Enlightenment

1700s scientists expanded European knowledge in Scientific Revolution

Scientific successes created great confidence in the power of REASON

If people used reason to find laws that governed the physical world, why not use reason to discover natural laws (laws that govern human nature)

scientific revolution enlightenment
Scientific Revolution  Enlightenment

With the use of REASON, Enlightenment thinkers could solve every social, political, and economic problem

Two thinkers: John Locke and Thomas Hobbes

Philosophes– “lovers of wisdom”

Enlightenment thinkers that applied the methods of science to better understand and improve society

enlightenment thinkers
Enlightenment Thinkers

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

Saw English Civil War

Believes society must be ruled by absolute monarch

Humans are nasty and brutal by nature

Social contract – give up freedom for an organized society


enlightenment thinkers1
Enlightenment Thinkers



Saw Glorious Revolution

Natural law: use of reason to study human behavior and create binding rules of moral behavior

Divine purpose for humanity

Life, liberty, property

Two Treaties of Government

comparing locke and hobbes views toward the state of nature
Comparing Locke and HobbesViews toward the "state of nature”
  • Hobbes
  • compared the English Civil War to the “state of nature”, which was brutal
  • his negative view of the revolution led him to conclude that society needed a strong king. 


believed that  the state of nature  was good. 

if governments could not do as much for people than they did for themselves in the state of nature, then government could be dismantled.

comparing locke hobbes views toward human nature
Comparing Locke & Hobbes Views toward human nature


has a negative view toward human nature “nasty, brutal….”; 


the human mind is like a blank slate.

comparison and contrast of views on government
Comparison and contrast of views on government


a contract exists between the king and the people; but once the king becomes king, he cannot be overthrown & obtains absolute power. 


government conditional & can be overthrown if it does not represent the people

using your notes section 1 packet
Using your notes & Section 1 packet

Explain how the leaders of the Scientific Revolution influenced the philosophes.

How did the Glorious Revolution influence the ideas of the Enlightenment?

How might the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, and the U.S. Constitution be considered to be documents of the Age of Enlightenment?

do now 12 6 121
Do Now – 12/6/12

Pick up the “Face-off” & Locke and Hobbes worksheets

take out your notes on Locke & Hobbes

face off locke vs hobbes
Face Off – Locke vs. Hobbes
  • FIRST – read Hobbes’ & Locke’s quotes and answer their corresponding questions by yourself!
  • SECOND – you will be placed in groups to answer the bottom 3 summary questions TOGETHER!
  • THIRD – read the background on both Locke & Hobbes
    • Underline the IMPORTANT information in each section
    • You will need to use this information to support your “debate”!

Participate in a CONSTRUCTIVE manner

3 times – 10 points

2 times – 8 points

1 time – 5 points

 times –  points

questions to think about
Questions to think about…

Why would the basic nature of humans be a topic of discussion?

Why would this be important for developing a concept for an ideal form of government?

How would these writers have come up with their point of view?

How could Locke and Hobbes have such different conclusions?

Think about your personal experiences & the role environment plays in forming YOUR ideas.

hobbes vs locke
Hobbes vs. Locke

There are three major causes of fighting...

Competition: People see themselves as in competition with each other.(invade for gain)

Diffidence: People lack self confidence and thus tend to overcompensate for it. (invade for safety)

Glory: People tend to desire glory. They expect others to value them as well as they value themselves. (invade for reputation)

How can you attain peace?

  • Which philosophe did you side with prior to our class discussion? (Locke or Hobbes)
    • WHY???
  • Do you still agree with his beliefs as strongly as you once did?
    • Yes? – explain! No? – Explain!

SWBAT summarize how economic thinking changed during the enlightenment

do now
Do Now

How did Locke and Hobbes differ in their views on the role of government?

What convinced educated Europeans to accept the power of reason?

enlightenment philosophers and writers
Enlightenment Philosophers and Writers

Fill out your chart for the following individuals:




Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Mary Wollstonecraft


Francois-Marie Arouet Voltaire (1694-1778)

Targeted corrupt officials

Battled inequality, injustice, and superstition

Disagreed with slave trade & religious prejudice

Offended French government and Catholic Church

Bastille prison twice

Exiled – forced to leave Paris

Defended principles of freedom of speech

baron de montesquieu
Baron de Montesquieu
  • Charles Louis de Secondat (1689-1755)
  • Persian Letters: ridiculed the French government and social classes
  • Criticized absolute power
  • idea of separation of powers
  • Divide powers among three branches
    • Legislative, executive, judicial
  • Checks and balances
  • Studied various governments across Europe and history
  • Influenced framers of the U.S. Constitution
denis diderot
Denis Diderot

Encyclopedias “change the general way of thinking”

Explained government, philosophy, and religion

articles from Voltaire and Montesquieu

Denounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, urged education for all

Attacked divine right and other traditions

Pope excommunication to any Catholic that read

Spread Enlightenment ideas

jean jacques rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Wrote The Social Contract

People by nature are good  corrupt by evils of society

Society = too many limitations on people’s behavior

Some controls – but should be minimal

Only governments that are freely elected should impose these controls

“general will” - best conscience of the people

Good of the community should be placed above individual interests

Thomas Paine & Marquis de Lafayette adopt this view

mary wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft

“free and equal” did not apply to women

natural rights limited to areas of home and family

mid to late 1700s women protested this view

Argued they were being excluded from social contract

Wollstonecraft accepted women’s duty to be a good mother

Should be able to determine their best interest without depending on men

1792: Vindication of Rights of Woman

Equal education for boys and girls

Education would help women participate equally with men

  • What were the “hot” topics addressed by the philosophes and published in the Encyclopedia?
    • To you, which was the most important?
  • Which philosophe would you side with? WHY? Explain.
    • If it’s a combination – explain what you would include and what you would eliminate and WHY.
political cartoon
Political Cartoon

Complete handout

Answer questions 1 & 2