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Role of International Organizations. Tax Reforms in Developing and Transition Economies. Center for Taxation and Public Governance Prof. Dr. Geerten M.M. Michielse. International Organizations. International Monetary Fund (IMF) World Bank UN Expert Committee

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role of international organizations

Role of International Organizations

Tax Reforms in Developing and Transition Economies

Center for Taxation and Public Governance

Prof. Dr. Geerten M.M. Michielse

international organizations
International Organizations
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • World Bank
  • UN Expert Committee
  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
  • World Trade Organization (WTO)
  • World Customs Organization (WCO)
  • European Union (EU)
international organizations based on co operation
International Organizations(based on co-operation)
  • Inter-American Development Bank
  • Asian Development Bank
  • Bilateral Donors (e.g. USAID, DFID, Danida, SIDA)
  • Regional Co-operations between Tax Administrations (e.g. CIAT, IOTA, CREDAF)
international monetary fund
International Monetary Fund
  • Policy maker
    • Driven by macro-economic stability
  • Technical Assistance
    • Tax policy
    • Legal drafting
    • Revenue administration
      • Tax administration
      • Customs administration
tax policy assistance
Tax Policy Assistance
  • Assessment of tax systems
  • Providing alternative tax policy solutions
  • Providing quantitative impacts of these solutions on macro-economic environment
  • Formulates best tax practices
revenue administration assistance
Revenue Administration Assistance
  • Support the revenue mobilization component of IMF-supported programs
  • Improving the effectiveness of tax administrations
  • Increase of taxpayer compliance
  • Development (and monitoring the implementation) of reform strategies for tax and customs administrations
  • Establishment of “Large Taxpayer Units”
legal drafting assistance
Legal Drafting Assistance

Transformation of formulated tax policy and revenue administration policies into legal documents

  • Laws
  • Regulations
  • Explanatory memoranda
tax policy package
Tax Policy “Package”
  • Single-rate broad-based VAT
  • Broad-based income tax with minimum tax incentives
  • Streamlining of excise duties
  • Reduction (elimination) of import tariffs
single rate broad based vat
Single-rate broad-based VAT
  • Important sectors (e.g. services) are still left out
  • Restrictive (or absence of) refund mechanism
  • Multiple rate structure
broad based income tax with minimum tax incentives
Broad-based income taxwith minimum tax incentives
  • Business income
  • Multiple (branch depended) rates
  • Incoherent depreciation schedules
    • Too many asset categories
    • Excessively low depreciation rates
  • Investment incentives
    • Tax holidays
    • Capital recovery incentives
legal drafting principles
Legal Drafting Principles
  • “Tailor-made” assistance
  • Simple and clear language
  • Consistency with local drafting style
  • Caveat: often seen as last prerogative of sovereignty (especially if related to IMF-funded program)
influence of imf
Influence of IMF
  • Conditionality (LOI):
  • Performance criteria (quantitative or structural)
    • Formal conditions of obtaining IMF finance; considered critical to achievement of program goals
  • Structural benchmarks
    • Points of reference against which progress may be monitored
influence of oecd
Influence of OECD
  • OECD:
    • Harmful Tax Competition
      • Low effective tax rate
      • Exchange of Information
    • Anti Money Laundering / Terrorist Financing
influence of eu wto conditions for membership
Influence of EU/WTO(conditions for membership)
  • European Union:
    • Implementation of Directives
    • Compliance with:
      • “four freedoms”
      • Code of Conduct
  • World Trade Organization:
    • Protection against export subsidies
    • Introduction of transfer pricing rules
influence of traditional technical assistance
Influence of (Traditional) Technical Assistance
  • IMF
    • Legal drafting
  • World Bank
    • Implementation of administration policies (including training)
  • Bilateral or Regional donors
    • Implementation on a day-to-day basis (providing long-term experts)
  • “Twinning” of tax administrations
    • Practical possibility to draw on partner’s experience