Obstacles to economic growth
Download
1 / 27

OBSTACLES TO ECONOMIC GROWTH - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 174 Views
  • Uploaded on

OBSTACLES TO ECONOMIC GROWTH. Obstacles to Economic Growth. Economists know far more about what blocks economic growth and development than what helps it. Yet we still don’t have a complete set of answers. OBSTACLES TO ECONOMIC GROWTH. OBSTACLES. I POLITICAL II SOCIAL III ECONOMIC.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'OBSTACLES TO ECONOMIC GROWTH' - havyn


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Obstacles to economic growth1
Obstacles to Economic Growth

Economists know far more about what blocks economic growth and development than what helps it.

Yet we still don’t have a complete set of answers.



Obstacles
OBSTACLES

I POLITICAL

II SOCIAL

III ECONOMIC


Political obstacles
POLITICAL OBSTACLES

  • POLITICAL INSTABILITY

  • CORRUPTION

  • GOOD ECONOMICS AS BAD POLITICS


Social obstacles
SOCIAL OBSTACLES

  • LACK OF ADMINISTRATIVE SKILLS

  • LACK OF ENTREPRENEURS

  • RAPID POPULATION GROWTH


Economic obstacles
ECONOMIC OBSTACLES

  • DISTORTING EFFECTS OF COLONIALISM/PAST HISTORY

  • FOREIGN AID

  • THE CURRENT WORLD TRADE SYSTEM


Political barriers
POLITICAL BARRIERS

POLITICAL INSTABILITY

Lack of an orderly system of government results in people only wanting to invest in the short run, not the long run.


Political barriers1
POLITICAL BARRIERS

CORRUPTION

Corruption raises the costs of doing business, but in an unpredictable fashion.


Political barriers2
POLITICAL BARRIERS

GOOD ECONOMICS AS BAD POLITICS

Often, long term development means painful, short term adjustments, such as massive layoffs.

It is hard to persuade people to accept short term deprivation in exchange for long term growth.


Political barriers3
POLITICAL BARRIERS

GOOD ECONOMICS AS BAD POLITICS

People with power and connections will block change, even if that means the country remains underdeveloped.

The poor and powerless can vote, or riot or act to slow down changes.


Increases in per capita real gdp
INCREASES IN PER CAPITA REAL GDP

Per Capita Real GDP is defined as:

Real GDP

Population


Increases in per capita real gdp1
Increases in Per Capita Real GDP

Increases in Per Capita Real GDP would be seen as an increase in that number.

It is really a very crude measure of economic growth.



What determines economic growth
What Determines Economic Growth?

While economists know far more about what determines economic growth, we still don’t have a complete set of answers.

Neither do the people in Washington, or those who are busy exporting any quick fix solution.


What is economic development
What is Economic Development?

Usually when economists talk about economic growth, what they really mean is ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.

Economic growth and economic development are not the same!


What is economic development1
What is Economic Development?

Economic development is harder to define and measure.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT is defined as:

a self- sustaining transformation of the economy and society.


Economic growth vs economic development
Economic Growth vs. Economic Development

You can’t have economic development without economic growth.

But you can have economic growth without economic development.

An economy can expand, without any technological or social changes.



Labor
LABOR

Labor is defined as:

The total physical and mental effort expended by people in the production of goods and services.


Labor1
LABOR

LABOR is the most important determinant for economic growth and development.

It is not just the size of the labor force that matters.

The quality of the labor force is more important.


Labor2
LABOR

When we talk about quality of a labor force, we mean the level of education.

The more highly educated a labor force is, the more likely a country will be able to develop.

The key here is universal primary education, which is more important than number of college students.


Capital
CAPITAL

We define capital as:

Human made products used to produce other products.


Capital1
CAPITAL

The ability of a country to grow, but especially to develop, depends upon its ability to purchase or create capital goods.

But the ability to obtain capital goods depends upon the ability to obtain money to buy or produce them.


Capital and the poverty trap
CAPITAL AND THE POVERTY TRAP

Poor countries have to obtain money to buy or to develop capital goods.

But because they are poor, they have little savings to do either.


LAND

Land is defined as:

All types of natural resources.


LAND

We have learned that an abundance of natural resources is not a necessary condition for economic growth.

East Asia is the outstanding example of this.


ad