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Control and Coordination in a Transactive Energy Environment. Jeffrey D. Taft, PhD Chief Architect for Electric Grid Transformation Jakob stoustrup , PhD Chief scientist / advanced controls program manager Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 28 March 2014. Our Grids Are Changing.
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Jeffrey D. Taft, PhD
Chief Architect for Electric Grid Transformation
Jakob stoustrup, PhD
Chief scientist / advanced controls program manager
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
28 March 2014
We are in the process of violating these principles!
Now we want to operate pervasively for joint economic/control optimization in this newer highly complex environment with potentially millions of interactive endpoints.
• Electric Vehicle (EV) charge management
• Inverter control for fast VAr regulation
• Local energy network and microgrid power balance, load sharing and flow control
• Multi-tier virtual power plants
• Energy/power market interactions for prosumers; Transactive Energy
• Electronic grid stabilization (FACTS for transmission; DSTATCOM for distribution)
• VER integration (wind, solar, etc.)
• Wide area measurement, protection, and closed loop control
• DER/DG integration (distribution level)
• Energy storage integration
• Responsive loads (command, price, and /or system frequency)
• Integrated Volt/VAr control (LTC/cap)
No single use case predominates; the control approach must support ensembles of new functions; utilities are being driven to select their unique function sets.
*Jose Medina, Nelson Muller, and IlyaRoytelman, Demand Response and Distribution Grid Operations: Opportunities and Challenges, IEEE Trans. On Smart Grid, vol. 1, pp. 193-198, Sept. 2010.
In fact, there are about 80 “-ity” type characteristics that everyone quotes*
*John Doyle and John G Brown, Caltech, Universal Laws and Architecture. Available online as 1_DoyleSageLec1_May7_2012.pdf
Scalar signal disaggregation models
Directionally good but still lacking
coordination capability, so needs a better foundation/framework
Embedded market and prices-to-devices models
Roozbehani, M., et al, Volatility of Power Grids under Real-Time Pricing, MIT, 2011, available online
Definition from GridWise Architecture Council
“The term “transactive energy” is used here to refer to techniques for managing the generation, consumption or flow of electric power within an electric power system through the use of economic or market based constructs while considering grid reliability constraints. The term “transactive” comes from considering that decisions are made based on a value. These decisions may be analogous to or literally economic transactions.”
Mung Chiang, Steven Low, et. al., Layering as Optimization Decomposition: A Mathematical Theory of Network Architectures, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 95, No. 1, January 2007.
*J. Taft and P. De Martini, Scalability, Resilience, and Complexity Management in Laminar Control of Ultra-Large Scale Systems, available online.
Jeffrey D. Taft
Embedded market approaches may act as a control elements in a feedback control loops, whether intended or not.
* Alternative Distributed Algorithms for Network Utility Maximization: Framework and Applications , Daniel P. Palomar and Mung Chiang, IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, Vol. 52, No. 12, December 2007.