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Understanding the Motivation to Seek or Keep a Job among Adults with SMD. Phyllis Panzano, Ph.D., Bev Seffrin, Ph.D., Sheri Chaney, M.A . Decision Support Services, Inc. Funded by the Ohio Department of Mental Health, The Social Security Administration & SAMHSA. GOALS OF THE RESEARCH.

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understanding the motivation to seek or keep a job among adults with smd

Understanding the Motivation to Seek or Keep a Job among Adults with SMD

Phyllis Panzano, Ph.D., Bev Seffrin, Ph.D., Sheri Chaney, M.A.

Decision Support Services, Inc.

Funded by the Ohio Department of Mental Health,

The Social Security Administration & SAMHSA

goals of the research
GOALS OF THE RESEARCH
  • To test a widely-studied model of work motivation on a sample of working adults with severe mental disabilities (SMD)
  • To explore differences in motivation to seek employment among non-working adults with SMD who are involved in vocational programming
brief history
Brief History
  • Job Incentive Focus Project (JIF): Innovative Research Component
  • JIF Agency Participants:
      • Eastway MHC, Eastco (Dayton)
      • Coleman Professional Center (Kent, Canton & Warren)
      • COVA (Columbus)
      • The Zepf Center, Network (Toledo)
brief history1
Brief History
  • Other participating organizations:
    • Amethyst
    • Columbus Area MHC – Pathway Clubhouse
    • Community Support Services
    • Concord Counseling
    • North Central Mental Health Center
    • Ohio Rehabilitation Services Commission
    • Southeast MHC
    • The Vision Center
understanding the behavior of working adults adults seeking work
Understanding the Behavior of Working Adults & Adults Seeking Work

Performance/Behavior =

f (Ability, Motivation, Opportunity to Perform).

motivation to maintain employment1
Motivation to Maintain Employment
  • BASED ON JOB CHARACTERISTICS THEORY
    • Hackman & Oldham (1976)
    • A Motivational Model based on the Design of Jobs
    • Original scales from the JDS reworded
    • New instrument (JPQ) validated
    • Measures added for tailoring to population of adults w/SMD
current last versions of the jpq
Current & Last Versions of the JPQ
  • “Current Version” of the Job Profile Questionnaire (JPQ): for individuals who are currently working or in a work-like situation (n = 132)
  • “Last Version” of the JPQ: for individuals who are NOT currently working, but have had recent work experience (i.e., within the past 6 months) (n = 24)
characteristics of respondents
Characteristics of Respondents
  • Age: 18 – 64, average age = 42
  • 59% male / 41% female
  • Tenure: 1 week - 18 years, average = 2 yrs
  • 89% Single, Divorced or Separated
  • 63% Caucasian, 30% African American & 7% Hispanic, American Native or Eskimo, or Other
job titles
Job Titles
  • 34% - Factory/ assembly/trial job
  • 14% - Cleaning Services
  • 11% - Manager, Clerical, Office
  • 7.5% - Food Service Worker
  • 5% - Sales, Cashier
motivation to maintain employment2
Motivation to Maintain Employment

How You

SEE

Your

Job

How You

FEEL

About

Your

Job

Actions

And

Results

Deal Makers and Deal Breakers

research questions
Research Questions
  • Does the original model based on job design that explains motivation to maintain employment apply to adults with SMD who are currently working?
  • What additions to the model were suggested by expert stakeholders?
  • Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?
  • All reported findings are statistically significant (p < .05).
research questions1
Research Questions
  • Does the original model based on job design that explains motivation to maintain employment apply to adults with SMD who are currently working?
  • What additions to the model were suggested by expert stakeholders?
  • Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?
  • All reported findings are statistically significant (p < .05).
motivation to maintain employment3
Motivation to Maintain Employment

How You

SEE

Your

Job

How You

FEEL

About

Your

Job

Actions

And

Results

Deal Makers and Deal Breakers

motivation to maintain employment4
Variety of Skills

Task Identity

Significance to Others

Autonomy

Feedback from the Job

How You

SEE Your

Job

Motivation to Maintain Employment
how you see your job
How You See Your Job

% Who agree or strongly agree

motivation to maintain employment5
Meaningfulness

Feelings of Responsibility

Knowledge of Results

How You

FEEL

About Your

Job

Motivation to Maintain Employment
how you feel about your job
How You Feel About Your Job

% Who agree or strongly agree

does how you see your job relate to feelings about your job
Does “How You See Your Job” Relate to “Feelings about Your Job”?
  • 36% of Meaningfulness is explained by the combination of:
  • Variety of Skills
  • Task Identity
  • Significance to Others
does how you see your job relate to feelings about your job1
Does “How You See Your Job” Relate to “Feelings about Your Job”?
  • 18% of Felt Responsibility is explained by the combination of:
    • Significance to Others and
    • Feedback from Job
  • 20% of Knowledge of Results is explained by the combination of:
    • Significance to Others and
    • Feedback from Job
does how you see your job relate to feelings about your job2
Does “How You See Your Job” Relate to “Feelings about Your Job”?
  • Yes!
  • Perceived job features related to Meaningfulness, Feelings of Responsibility and Knowledge of Results in a pattern that is almost identical to the predictions of the model.
  • Significance of Work to Others emerged as an important variable. (Only 29% agree/ strongly agree that their work is significant to others.)
motivation to maintain employment6
Motivation to Maintain Employment

How You

SEE

Your

Job

How You

FEEL

About

Your

Job

Actions

And

Results

Deal Makers and Deal Breakers

motivation to maintain employment7
General Satisfaction

Perceived Job Performance

Internal Work Motivation

Satisfaction with Growth

Thoughts of Quitting

Actions

and

Results

Motivation to Maintain Employment
actions and results
Actions and Results

% Who agree or strongly agree

do feelings about the job relate to actions and results
Do “Feelings About the Job” Relate to “Actions and Results”?
  • 41% of General Satisfaction is explained by:
  • Meaningfulness
do feelings about the job relate to actions and results1
Do “Feelings About the Job” Relate to “Actions and Results”?
  • 30% of Perceived Job Performance is explained by the combination of:
  • Meaningfulness
  • Feeling Responsible
  • Knowledge of Results
do feelings about the job relate to actions and results2
Do “Feelings About the Job” Relate to “Actions and Results”?
  • 33% of Satisfaction with Growth is explained by
      • Meaningfulness and Knowledge of Results
  • 29% of Internal Work Motivation is explained by
      • Felt Responsibility and Knowledge of Results
  • 20% of Thoughts of Quitting is explained by
      • Meaningfulness (negative relationship).
do feelings about the job relate to actions and results3
Do “Feelings about the Job” Relate to “Actions and Results”?
  • Yes!
  • Meaningfulness, Feelings of Responsibility and Knowledge of Results DO relate to outcomes.
  • The patterns of relationships are logical.
  • Meaningfulness emerges as an important feeling about the job. (48% of respondents agree/strongly agree that their jobs are meaningful.)
motivation to maintain employment8
Motivation to Maintain Employment

How You

SEE

Your

Job

How You

FEEL

About

Your

Job

Actions

And

Results

Deal Makers and Deal Breakers

deal makers and breakers
Deal Makers and Breakers

% Important or Very Important

motivation to maintain employment10
Motivation to Maintain Employment

How You

SEE

Your

Job

How You

FEEL

About

Your

Job

Actions

And

Results

Deal Makers and Deal Breakers

answering research question 1
Answering Research Question #1
  • Q: Does the original model based on job design that explains motivation to maintain employment apply to adults with SMD who are currently working?
  • A:This model provides a good fit to working adults with SMD.
why is this important
Why is this important?
  • Workers’ perceptions about their jobs relate to important actions & results.
  • Jobs can be redesigned to improve reactions to the job (e.g., Skill Variety).
  • Perceived features of the job are candidates for job crafting and this can also improve reactions to jobs (e.g., Significance of Work to Others).
research question 2
Research Question #2
  • What additions to the model were suggested by expert stakeholders?
motivation to maintain employment11
Motivation to Maintain Employment

How You

See

Your Job

(additions)

How You

Feel

About

Your Job

(addition)

Actions

And

Results

(additions)

Deal Makers & Breakers

(additions)

motivation to maintain employment12
Dealing with Others

Significance of Working to Self

Feedback from Agents (Coworkers & Supervisors)

Emotional Labor

How You

SEE Your

Job

(additions)

Motivation to Maintain Employment
motivation to maintain employment13
Emotional Dissonance

How You

FEEL About Your Job

(additions)

Motivation to Maintain Employment
motivation to maintain employment14
Identity as a Worker

Skill Match

Satisfactions with Job-related Aspects (10)

Issues for Workers from Vocational Programming (7)

Satisfaction of Needs (6)

Deal Makers and Deal Breakers

Motivation to Maintain Employment
motivation to maintain employment15
Commitment to Supervisor

Empowerment

Career Maturity

Perc’d Improvement General Health/ Mental Health

Job Strain

Actions

and

Results

(additions)

Motivation to Maintain Employment
additional actions and results
Additional Actions and Results

% Who Agree or Strongly Agree

answering research question 2
Answering Research Question #2
  • Q: Do Stakeholders Suggest Unique Additions to this Model?
  • A: Yes! Additions were added to every facet of the model.
research question 3
Research Question #3
  • Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?
are added actions results explained by the variables in the revised model2
45% of Commitment to Supervisor

42% Original Model & 3% Additions

40% of Career Maturity

28% Original Model & 12% Additions

32% Of Perceived Improvement – Health

22% Original Model & 10% Additions

Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?
answering research question 3
Answering Research Question #3
  • Q: Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?
  • A: Yes! All additional Actions & Results are related to original model variables.
  • Variables added for this research ALSO explain Actions & Results.
research question 1
Research Question 1
  • Q: Does the original motivational model apply to working adults w/SMD?
  • A: The model fits very well & operates as predicted.
  • Implication: Worker perceptions of job design are important to consider in supported employment programs.
research question 21
Research Question 2
  • Q: Did expert stakeholders suggest additions to the model?
  • A: Yes, additions were made to every facet of the model.
  • Implication: Outcomes valued by consumers (e.g., empowerment) need to be considered to fully understand motivation to maintain employment.
research question 31
Research Question 3
  • Q: Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?
  • A: All additional Actions & Results are related to model variables.
  • Implication: Alternative definitions of employment success need to be recognized in vocational programming.
conclusions for motivation to maintain employment
Conclusions for Motivation to Maintain Employment
  • The original motivational model based on Job Characteristics Theory provides a good fit for working adults w/SMD.
  • Additions to the model are important for understanding valued work and developmental outcomes.
  • Job design is important to consider in supported employment programming.
understanding the motivation to seek employment
Phase I: Motivation to Seek Employment

Phase II: Preparation for Job Search

Motivation to Maintain Employment

Understanding the Motivation to Seek Employment
motivation to seek employment
Motivation to Seek Employment
  • FIELD DRIVEN!
    • Interviews with MH specialists in Vocational Rehabilitation
    • Focus groups with Consumers
  • ORGANIZED WITH CLASSIC PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL/ ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    • Personnel Selection
    • Expectancy Theory
expectancy theory
Expectancy Theory
  • Motivation to work will be higher if having a job is seen as instrumental to valued outcomes.
    • I think I would be happier if I had a job.
    • Work would be good for me for many reasons.
    • The sooner I get a job the better.
    • If I got a job it would cause more problems than it would solve.
motivation to seek employment1
Motivation to Seek Employment
  • Exploratory portion of the research
  • Goal: Investigate differences in motivation to seek employment among adults with little working experience
phase i motivation to seek employment
Phase I: Motivation to Seek Employment

Past Working Behavior

Motivation to Work

Intended or Actual Future Working Behavior

preview version
Preview Version
  • The “Preview Version” of the Job Profile Questionnaire (JPQ) is designed for individuals who have never worked, or who have not been in a work-like experience for an extended period (more than 6 months)
  • 262 of the participants in the research completed the PREVIEW Version of the JPQ.
primary assumptions
Primary Assumptions
  • Individuals in vocational programming are “ready to work”
  • Individuals have varying levels of motivation to work
  • Motivation explains differences in job seeking behavior & work outcomes
methods
Methods

Q: Who provided data?

A: Staff and Consumers

Q: How were data gathered?

A: Paper-pencil or JPQ Software

jpq software
JPQ Software
  • All staff and consumer versions available on the software
  • Print blank questionnaires
  • Print feedback reports
  • Microsoft Access
  • Easy as “1, 2, 3”
profile of consumer participants1
Profile of Consumer Participants
  • 207 non-working adults with SMD in vocational programming (M version)
  • 55 other non-working adults in vocational programming (N version)
profile of consumer participants2
Profile of Consumer Participants
  • 207 non-working adults with SMD in vocational programming (M version)
  • 55 other non-working adults in vocational programming (N version)
demographics
Demographics
  • 62% male, 38% female
  • 60% Caucasian, 35% African American
  • Age range 18 – 61, average age = 38
  • 90% Single, Separated, or Divorced
  • 61% Economically Disadvantaged
type of work in last five years
Type of Work in Last Five Years
  • 66% Full and/or Part Time
  • 16% Short Term and/or Temporary
  • 15% Volunteer and/or Odd Jobs
  • 3% No work
exploratory issue 1
Exploratory Issue 1

Exploring the Components of Motivation to Work

four components of motivation to work
Four Components of Motivation to Work
  • Affective Motivation to Work (a = .81)
      • I think about how I would be happier if I had a job.
  • Positive Expectations about Work (a = .79)
      • Work would be good for me for many reasons.
four components of motivation to work1
Four Components of Motivation to Work
  • Urgency to Work (a = .84)
      • The sooner I get a job the better.
  • Anxiety about Working (a = .79)
      • If I got a job it would cause more problems than it would solve
summary components of motivation to work
Summary: Components of Motivation to Work
  • Although participants may be “ready” to work, they differ in Motivation to Work.
  • Four components from this study reveal important differences among respondents.
  • Realistic rather than uniformly high scores on each component may be the ideal goal for programming.
exploratory issue 2
Exploratory Issue 2

Key Factors Linked to Four Components of Motivation to Seek Employment

issues for workers with smd linked to four components
Issues for Workers with SMD Linked to Four Components*
  • Symptom Awareness (r = .27 - .30)
      • The symptoms of my mental illness are present when I carry out my daily living activities.
  • Loss of Benefits Concern (r = .18 - .32)
      • I worry about how working will affect my benefits.
  • Ownership of Job Choice (r = .46 - .47)
      • I am being given the opportunity to make my job choice.

*Absolute values for significant correlations used for range

The first are issues for workers with SMD, they are symptom awareness, loss of benefit concern and ownership of job choice.

support from significant others linked to four components
Support from Significant Others Linked to Four Components*
  • Support from Family and Friends (r = .18 - .23)
      • My family and friends encourage me to work.
  • Support from Vocational Rehab Staff(r = .24 - .24)
      • Vocational rehab staff encourage me to work.

*Absolute values used for correlations range

clients beliefs about working linked to four components
Clients’ Beliefs about Working Linked to Four Components*
  • Interest in Working(r = .43 - .58)
      • Interesting – Boring
  • Feelings of Permanence(r = .36 - .46)
      • Short term – Long term
  • Expected Job Strain(r = .30 - .40)
      • I think I will be stressed out at work.

*Absolute values used for correlations range

client development linked to four components
Client Development Linked to Four Components*
  • Identity as a Worker (r = .44 - .48)
      • I think of myself as a working person.
  • Empowerment (r = .24 - .54)
      • I see myself as a capable person.
  • Importance of Having a Job (r = .17 - .45)
      • How important is having a job?
  • Self Efficacy, Previous Experience (r = .28)
      • I believe I can do well at a job because of my previous experience.
summary key factors linked to components of motivation to seek employment
Summary: Key Factors Linked to Components of Motivation to Seek Employment
  • The four components of motivation to seek employment are related to a core group of factors.
  • Many of these factors can be modified through programming, education, or work experience.
exploratory issue 3
Exploratory Issue 3

How do these key factors relate to the Affective Motivation component?

summary how do these key factors relate to affective motivation
Summary: How do these Key Factors relate to Affective Motivation?
  • Key factors explain Affective Motivation to work extraordinarily well.
  • “Beliefs about Working” seems particularly important.
exploratory issue 4
Exploratory Issue 4

Is there a link between past work behavior and intended future behavior?

conclusions re motivation to seek employment
Conclusions re: Motivation to Seek Employment
  • This research explored four components of Motivation to Seek Employment
  • Four components from this study reveal important differences in motivation to seek employment among adults in vocational programming.
conclusions re motivation to seek employment1
Conclusions re: Motivation to Seek Employment
  • Key factors related to these four components can be influenced through programming.
  • Past work behavior is positively linked to intention to work. Gaining work experience is important.
understanding the behavior of working adults adults seeking work1
Understanding the Behavior of Working Adults & Adults Seeking Work

Performance/Behavior =

f (Ability, Motivation, Opportunity to Perform).

understanding the behavior of working adults adults seeking work2
Understanding the Behavior of Working Adults & Adults Seeking Work

Performance/Behavior =

f (Ability, Motivation, Opportunity to Perform).

supported employment
Supported Employment
  • A way to assist persons with SMD choose, get and keep paid jobs in integrated employment settings by providing a wide range of needed supports so that the psychological and economic benefits of work can be realized
  • Support is a function not a setting
  • Assumption: working sooner not later, generally is better.
closing comments

Closing Comments

We welcome your questions

and observations!

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