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ODS/GHG Reduction: Options in Foams February 2011 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ODS/GHG Reduction: Options in Foams February 2011. Forces: commercializing new molecule(s). Environmental regulation or restriction . . . . EU F-Gas Directive: restricts the use of materials with GWP > 150 in emissive applications Restricts the use of HFC-134a in specific applications

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forces commercializing new molecule s
Forces: commercializing new molecule(s)

Environmental regulation or restriction . . . .

  • EU F-Gas Directive: restricts the use of materials with GWP > 150 in emissive applications
    • Restricts the use of HFC-134a in specific applications
    • EU one component foam industry regulation: 04 July 2008
    • EU novelty aerosol industry regulation: 04 July 2009
  • Kyoto Protocol: Developed countries reduce GHG emissions 5% (1990)
    • EU reduce GHG emissions by 8% (1990 levels)
    • Japan striving to meet Kyoto commitments
  • Industry concern with further GWP regulation
  • Taxation of raw materials basis GWP values
    • Economic impact on finished goods
  • Climate Change bills in U.S. Congress
  • Globally: reduction in ODS and climate change

Environmental regulation is now driving commercialization


Fluorine Products – a History of Innovation

Markets Served:Mobile and Stationary Air conditioning, Refrigeration, Insulation Foam for Buildings and Electrical Appliances, Cleaning Solvents, Nuclear Power, Aerosols, Heat Pumps, Geothermal and Solar Renewables



F-Gas Regulation

CFC Phase-out

HCFC Phase-out









Ozone Depleting

and Very High Global

Warming Potential

Non-Ozone Depleting but has High Global Warming Potential

Low-Global-Warming Potentials and No Ozone

Depletion Effect

Innovation Tied to Environmental Compliance

montreal protocol calls for hcfc 141b phase out
Montreal Protocol calls for HCFC-141b phase out
  • Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
  • Baseline average of 2009 and 2010
  • Freeze 2013
  • Reductions: 10%m : 2015 > 35% :2020 > 67.5% : 2025 > 2.5% per year reduction 2030 to 2040
  • Complete phase out 2040
  • HCFC-141b has been phased out in United States, Japan and Europe
    • HCFC transitioned the industries to environmentally improved materials
  • Global pressure may accelerate the phase out date in other countries
    • example: India and UAE, as well as others
  • HFC’s are utilised where key needs demanded are:
    • insulation performance, and energy efficiency of finished products (refrigerators)
    • non-flammability property
  • Hydrocarbons, and other non-HFC materials, while flammable, may be used:
    • where deficiencies in insulation performance and flammability can be tolerated
    • spray foam industry is particularly sensitive to flammability (application / equipment)

HCFC’s successfully phased out in many countries

blowing agent attributes
Blowing Agent Attributes
  • Phase out of ozone depleting substances: ODS
  • Global warming potential: climate change impact reduction
  • Ground level smog formation: limited contribution
  • Low order of toxicity – safety in manufacturing use and finished products
  • Non-flammable – safety in manufacturing use
  • Insulation performance / energy efficiency: low lambda or k-factor
  • Processing and equipment implications
    • Liquids: appliance (refrigerators); commercial refrigeration; spray foam; insulating panels
    • Gases: extruded polystyrene (thermoplastics); special applications
  • Compatible with formulations and processing equipment materials
    • Low conversion cost: equipment investment and reformulation
  • Economic valuation in use – translates into finished product economics
  • Commercially available on a global basis

Attributes support governments’ and industry’s preferences

hba 2 liquid low gwp blowing agent
HBA-2: Liquid Low GWP Blowing Agent


  • Liquid blowing agent
  • Molecular weight: less than HFC-245fa

Environmental Properties

  • Low global warming potential: GWP100 = 7
  • Non-flammable: ASTM E-681
  • Volatile Organic Compound: very low MIR

Toxicity Screening

  • Preliminary stages: Results are very promising
  • Assessments completed:
    • Cardiac Sensitization
    • Genetic Testing: Ames Assay & Mouse Micronucleus
    • Acute Inhalation (Rat)
    • Inhalation: 2 & 4 week
    • Unscheduled DNA Synthesis

Honeywell HBA-2 Blowing Agent promising low GWP molecule

hfc 245fa hba 2 insulation applications
HFC-245fa & HBA-2 Insulation Applications
  • Household refrigerators (appliances)
  • Commercial refrigeration
    • food preservation
  • Building construction (residential and commercial)
    • Sprayed foams
    • Roofing and sheathing (board stock)
    • Panels (faced panels, sandwich panels)
hfo 1234ze e blowing agent
HFO-1234ze(E) Blowing Agent

Hydrofluoroolefin (HFO)

trans – 1,3,3,3 – tetrafluoropropene

      • CHF = CHCF3
      • Molecular Weight: 114
      • Gas: TBP = -19 °C (- 3 °F)

Environmental Properties

  • Zero ozone depletion potential (ODP)
  • Low global warming potential: GWP100 = 6
  • Non-flammable: U.S. Department of Transportation
    • “Non-flammable Compressed Gas”
    • No flame limits by ASTM E681
    • “Non-flammable”: EU Test Method A11
  • Volatile Organic Compound Measure
    • Maximum Incremental Reactivity
      • MIRHFO-1234zeE < MIREthane

Non-ODS / Low GWP / Non-Flammable / Low POCP

= Environmentally Sustainable Molecule =

hfo 1234ze e insulation applications
HFO-1234ze(E) Insulation Applications
  • Extruded thermoplastics foams
    • Extruded polystyrene
  • One component foams
    • Sealing around doors and windows
    • Repairing damage
    • Adhesives
  • Two component ‘pressurized’ foams
transition strategy timeframe dependent
Transition Strategy: Timeframe Dependent
  • HFC-245fa: Commercially available today – a transition solution
    • Widely utilised in NA. Specific applications: EU / Japan / China
    • HFC/HCFC-141b blend technology: ‘reduced cost’ transition option
  • HBA-2: World-scale capacity target is mid-decade
    • Conversion to HFC-245fa ‘directly applicable’ to HBA-2

HFC-245fa: Low capital, medium term safe route to ODS management

blowing agent energy efficiency lambda
Blowing Agent Energy Efficiency (Lambda)
  • Lambda is the measure of heat transfer through a material in a given time and temperature
  • Lower lambda is better: significant energy efficiency driven by insulation characteristics
  • When compared to HCFC-141b insulation performance:
    • HFC-245fa is equal to slightly better
    • HBA-2 has shown improvement over HFC-245fa
    • HFC-245fa/HCFC-141b blends should exhibit similar insulation performance

Transitioning: HCFC-141b  HFC-245fa  HBA-2 maintains energy efficiency

sprayed foam comparison hfc 245fa hba 2
Sprayed Foam Comparison: HFC-245fa & HBA-2

Low water formulation

High water formulation

capital investment hfc versus non hfc
Capital Investment: HFC versus non-HFC

Why are HFC-245fa and HBA-2 blowing agents low capital investment?

  • They are non-flammable  none to limited capital requirement
    • Low risk – technology, workplace safety, environmental
  • HCFC-141b PUR equipment  little to no equipment modifications required
  • Both are liquid blowing agents with moderate vapour pressure
    • May require storage vessel up-grade  low capital investment
  • HFC-245fa conversion from HCFC-141b in US: Cost ≈ Minor

Why are Non-HFC (hydrocarbon & methyl formate) blowing agents challenging?

  • Generally flammable  significant investment in flammability mitigation
    • Blending operations; foaming equipment; storage vessels
    • Consequences of miss-operations  inherent risk of fire / explosions
  • Factory emissions  probable ground level smog formation
  • Non-HFC PUR foams typically exhibit deficiency in insulation performance
  • Non-HFC conversion in US: Cost ≈ $500 K USD to $ 5 M+ USD

(small asset)

(refrigerator factory)

HBA-2 is a LOW capital investment, near ‘drop-in’ transition from HFC-245fa

operational cost implications
Operational Cost: Implications
  • HFC = lowest total cost path to high performance for regulatory compliance
  • Non-HFC solutions have inherent energy efficiency penalty
    • Cost to restore energy efficiency: panels – low cost; refrigerators – high cost
  • Non-HFC solutions exhibit deficiencies in density, dimensional stability, LTTR*

* LTTR: Long Term Thermal Resistance

Non-HFC PUR requires additional costs to achieve equal performance

hfc solutions summary
HFC Solutions Summary
  • ODS and GWP reduction is imperative on a global basis
  • HFC solutions: thru HFC-245fa ‘bridge’ route . . .
    • Provides a balanced, technology neutral / low capital investment pathway
    • Positions the industry for future HBA-2 adoption
    • HFC-245fa and HBA-2 do not contribute to ground level smog formation
    • Non-flammable: inherently safer utilisation in applications
  • HFC’s allow for orderly industrial transition:
    • Frees up ODS rights under an ODS Cap
    • Accommodates industrial and economy growth
  • HCFC-141b / HFC blends  possible attractive solution
    • ODS reduction on an interim basis
    • Energy efficiency neutral with respect to operational costs
    • Economic valuation: low capital investment & raw materials cost reduction
blowing agent commercialization status
Blowing Agent Commercialization Status
  • HFC-245fa
    • Registered for use globally
    • Commercially available globally
    • Commercial manufacturing site: 2002 in U.S.
  • 1234ze(E)
    • U.S.: SNAP listed / PMN pending EPA approval
    • EU: Registered under REACH (article 24): 1000+ tonnes/year
    • Japan: Registration complete
    • Commercial capacity: 2008 in U.S.
    • Commercialized in EU and Japan
  • HBA-2
    • Toxicity assessment underway: completion 1Q 2011
    • Global notifications/registrations
      • U.S.: SNAP / PMN applications are in progress
      • EU: REACH inquiry stage
      • Japan: Filed for compliance with Japan Chemical Substances Control Law

Environmental solutions have/will meet regulatory needs timing



Although all statements and information contained herein are believed to be accurate and reliable, they are presented without guarantee or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied. Information provided herein does not relieve the user from the responsibility of carrying out its own tests and experiments, and the user assumes all risks and liability for use of the information and results obtained. Statements or suggestions concerning the use of materials and processes are made without representation or warranty that any such use is free of patent infringement and are not recommendations to infringe on any patents. The user should not assume that all toxicity data and safety measures are indicated herein or that other measures may not be required.

specific innovation requiring regulatory approval
Specific Innovation Requiring Regulatory Approval
  • Excellent Environmental / Physical / Economic Properties
    • GWP of 7
    • ODP < 0.0005
    • Non-flammable
    • Atmospheric Life < 50 days
  • Tremendous Potential as HFC / HCFC Replacement
    • Low GWP Material Designed for “Traditional” Applications
    • Foam Blowing Agent: Insulation Performance 3-5% Better vs.HFC-245fa
    • Solvent: Exhibits Very Attractive Solvent Performance Properties
    • Refrigerant for Chillers: Applications Testing by Major OEMs
  • Hurdle to Overcome: Lack of Environmental / Legal Certainty
    • ODP Lower Than Many Non-regulated Chlorinated Solvents
      • Methylene Chloride: ODP: 0.0047 Atmospheric Life: ~ 180 days
      • Perchloroethylene: ODP: 0.006 Atmospheric Life: ~ 110 days
  • Very Low POCP
  • Compatibility (Plastics and Most Elastomers)
  • Similar Economics to Current HFC

No Certainty in Status Quo – Threshold Value Needed