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Causes of the Civil War • S -ectionalism • E -lection of 1860 (preserve the Union, stop the spread of slavery) • C -ultural differences • S -tates Rights/Nullification
When tariff reached nearly 45% with the passage of the 1828 “Tariff of Abominations” South Carolina declared it nullified (that is, not enforced in the state) and threatened to secede Led by John C. Calhoun President Andrew Jackson threatened to send in troops and impose marshal law The Crisis was averted when a compromise tariff was passed in 1833 The Nullification Crisis(1832) (SSUSH8c)
Jefferson Davis was a graduate of West Point and served in the army before becoming a planter. He served as a Senator from Mississippi before resigning when Mississippi seceded from the Union. He was elected President of the Confederacy. Although he was initially successful in mobilizing the Confederacy for war—he was unable to maintain the balance of military necessity and political will to keep the Confederacy from collapsing Jefferson Davis
Habeas Corpus • It is the legal rule that anyone imprisoned must be taken before a judge to determine if the prisoner is being legally held in custody. • The Constitution allows a president to suspend habeas corpus during a national emergency. • Lincoln used his emergency powers to legalize the holding of Confederate sympathizers without trial and without a judge agreeing they were legally imprisoned. • Over 13,000 Confederate sympathizers were arrested in the North.
Emergency Powers • were used by Lincoln. • This included suspending habeas corpus and issuing the Emancipation Proclamation.
Lincoln Jeff. Davis The Presidents South North The Civil War The head general Robert E. Lee The head general Ulysses S. Grant Blue vs Gray
Comparing the 2 sides South North
North A______ Plan- squeeze the South Blockade on the coast to keep out supplies Capture the Mississippi River Destroy the land so the Southerners will stop supporting the war Strategies/Plan of War p.262
Strategies/Plan of War continued • South • King __________ Diplomacy • Get Europe to help the South because Europe needs cotton
Ft. ________, South Carolinasecedes/secession • Who shoots first?
Perhaps the most brilliant military tactician in the war and his leadership of the Confederate Army. His soldiers followed him dutifully until he was forced to surrender to Grant at Appomattox –with the Confederacy in full retreat. Confederate LeadersRobert E. Lee
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson was a brilliant field commander under Robert E. Lee for the Confederacy. He had taught military strategy at the Virginia Military Institute prior to the Civil War. While out on patrol inspecting the front lines at Chancelorsville, Jackson left from one point and returned to his command at another—approaching from the front. He troops mistook his patrol for the enemy and fired—killing him. Stonewall Jackson
His success in the western campaign and victories at Shiloh and Vicksburg led to his promotion to commander of all Union armies by Lincoln in March of 1864. After his promotion, while he took on Robert E. Lee in Virginia—defeating him at Appomattox. Union Leaders (SSUSH9c)Ulysses S. Grant
He played an important role in Grant's victory of Vicksburg. When Grant was given overall command, Sherman was given command of all of the Western Forces, amounting to over 100,000 men. He went on to capture Atlanta. He marched with his forces 80 miles wide, and used "scorch-earth tactics" during his famous march to the sea on November 16 to the December 22, 1864. His forces raped and pillaged the country side until the capture of Savannah William Tecumseh Sherman
Vicksburg One of the last major Confederate holdouts for control of the Mississippi river was Vicksburg. The siege of Vicksburg lasted two months until on July 4th, 1863—virtually starving to death and holed up in caves from the constant barrage of artillery from General Grant—the Confederates surrendered. Important Battles of the Civil War(SSUSH9d)
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania This battle was a turning point in the war The North won. (south can’t attack the North) Later Gettysburg Address
April 1863 - At the same time as the siege of Vicksburg was coming to a close, the 3 day battle of Gettysburg was fought in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. This proved to be the most decisive battle of the Civil War and also the costliest. Casualties totaled 23,000 for the Union and 28,000 for the Confederacy. The most famous maneuver of the battle was a suicide charge ordered by Lee and under the command of General Pickett. “Pickett’s Charge” resulted in Confederate soldiers being slaughtered in an open field charge into heavy gun and artillery fire. Gettysburg(0:00 to 1:00)
Gettysburg Address • In November 1863, Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address was another event by which he shaped popular opinion in favor of preserving the Union. The occasion was the dedication of a military cemetery at the Gettysburg battlefield four months after 51,000 people were killed in the battle there. Most of the ceremony was performed by famous orator Edward Everett, who spoke for two hours, as was the manner at that time for an important event. • Then Lincoln rose to speak, starting with his famous words “Four score and seven years ago.” He spoke for just two minutes in what is now considered one of the greatest speeches in the English language. His address helped raise the spirits of northerners who had grown weary of the war and dismayed by southern victories over the larger Union armies. He convinced the people that the United States was one indivisible nation.
Vicksburg • May-July 1863––Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant laid siege to Vicksburg, Mississippi, because the army that controlled its high ground over a bend in the Mississippi River would control traffic on the whole river. • After a seven-week siege, Grant achieved one of the Union’s major strategic goals: he gained control of the Mississippi River. • Confederate troops and supplies in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas were cut off from the Confederacy. • This Union victory, coupled with the Union victory at Gettysburg, was the turning point of the war.
Antietam, Maryland • victory for the North.
Emancipation ProclamationPresident Lincoln freed all the slaves in the Rebel states.2 major effects:1. the beginning of the end of slavery in the USA2. The War’s focus shifts to slavery
Sherman’s March to the Sea Sherman was a Union general. He marched through GA, destroying everything in his way. (ATL)
The Battle of Atlanta was a long campaign for the control of Georgia by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman. It began with a surging victory out of Tennessee at Lookout Mountain in November of 1863. Union forces pushed the Confederate Army back to Atlanta in September of 1864 and then began a “March to the Sea” to Savannah Battle of Atlanta
Sherman continued… • He destroyed infrastructure to end the war quickly. • Sherman did not destroy Savannah, because it had a lot of cotton $.
The South Surrenders • 1865 Appomattox Court House in VA L____ surrenders to G_____
. • Lee 11. More People 21. Issues the Emancipation Proclamation • Grant 12. More Motivation 22. Sherman • Lincoln 13. Blue 23. carpetbaggers are from _____ • J. Davis 14. Grey 24. scalawags are from __ • Stonewall Jackson 15. Union 25. King Cotton Diplomacy • Winner Antietam 16. Yankee 26. Anaconda Plan • Winner Gettysburg 17. Rebels 27. pro-nullification • More Rail Roads 18. Confederate 28. sectionalism • More Cotton 19. better generals • Pro- States Rights 20. winner at the start of the War 30. pro-slavery North South Both
Reconstruction • The Confederate states had to meet requirements to get back into the US. • The __________ party ruled the South
Terms • Reconstruction- rebuilding the _____ and uniting the USA • Freedmen’s Bureau- a gov. group that will help blacks and ________ in the South est. schools etc. • Scalawag- a _____erner who supports Reconstruction • Carpetbagger- a _____erner who comes South to “help
Freedman’s Bureau • A government group set up to help free slaves and ________.
Freedmen’s Bureau • Congress created this the to help African Americans to make the transition to freedom. • The Freedmen’s Bureau helped former slaves solve everyday problems by providing food, clothing, jobs, medicine, and medical-care facilities. • While the Freedman’s Bureau did help some former slaves acquire land unclaimed by its pre-war owners, Congress did not grant land or the absolute right to own land to all freed slaves. • Such land grants would have provided African Americans with some level of economic independence.
Amendments passed after the Civil War • Southern states were required to ratify all these amendments before they could rejoin the Union. These included: • 13th Amendment: abolished slavery and involuntary servitude in the United States • 14th Amendment: defined U.S. citizenship as including all persons born in the United States, including African Americans; guaranteed that no citizen could be deprived of his/her rights without due process • 15th Amendment: removed restrictions on voting based on race, color, or ever having been a slave; granted the right to vote to all male U.S. citizens over the age of 21
Amendments • 13th ended ______ • 14th everyone gets equal protection from the law & citizenship to former _______ • 15th Gave all _____ the right to vote
______ the South Radical Republicans Forgive much of the South Presidential 2 opinions on Reconstruction
Radical Republican Reconstruction • This refers to the more laborious process of rejoining the union that Congress required of the former confederate states. • Southern states had to reapply for admission to the Union and to take steps to secure the rights of the newly freed slaves. • This resulted in the creation of southern state governments that included African Americans. • The key feature of the effort to protect the rights of the newly freed slaves was the passage of three constitutional amendments during and after the Civil War.
Presidential Reconstruction • refers to the plans laid out by President Abraham Lincoln and carried out by President Andrew Johnson. • This plan echoed the words of Lincoln’s second Inaugural Address, which urged no revenge on former Confederate supporters. • The purpose of Presidential Reconstruction was to readmit the southern states to the Union as quickly as possible. • Republicans in Congress, however, were outraged by the fact that the new southern state governments were passing laws that deprived the newly freed slaves of their rights.
Black Codes(1:10) • In the Reconstruction South, there was resistance to racial equality. • All former slave states enacted Black Codes, which were laws written to control the lives of freed slaves in ways slaveholders had formerly controlled the lives of their slaves. • Black Codes deprived voting rights to freed slaves and allowed plantation owners to take advantage of black workers in ways that made it seem slavery had not been abolished.
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson • This occurred because President Johnson ignored laws passed by Congress to limit presidential powers. • They passed these laws to stop Johnson from curbing the Radical Republicans’ hostile treatment of former Confederate states and their leaders. • After a three- month trial in the Senate, Johnson missed being convicted by one vote, therefore he was not removed from office merely because he held political opinions unpopular among politicians who had the power to impeach him.
Review • Timeline • Poem/