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Brasil: Great Depression and ISI. WWI had initial negative impact on Brasil. Coffee was main export Growing demand for necessary items revitalized economy However, the demand for sugar, beans, & other items created an economic boom in Brasil by 1915

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brasil great depression and isi
Brasil: Great Depression and ISI
  • WWI had initial negative impact on Brasil.
    • Coffee was main export
    • Growing demand for necessary items revitalized economy
    • However, the demand for sugar, beans, & other items created an economic boom in Brasil by 1915
  • Profits derived from coffee provided resources to help create industry in Brasil
  • Increased urbanization and industrialization strengthened both the industrial bourgeoisie and the working class
    • The working class became more racially, sexually, & ethnically diverse as a result of urbanization & industrialization
    • Brasilian culture was also affected by economic expansion
      • New immigrants from Japan & the Ottoman Empire joined the African contingent.
      • In the urban areas the diversity gave birth to the samba (think Carnival); this was created to mock their social rivals
brasil great depression and isi1
Brasil: Great Depression and ISI
  • Due to wartime inflation, trade unions got together and there were more strikes.
    • 1917: A strike on São Paulo was led by women seeking higher wages, respect from male supervisors, improved working conditions
    • Their plight caused a strike wave from 1917-1920 in which many employers gave in to the demands
      • However, permanent improvements did not happen
brasil great depression and isi2
Brasil: Great Depression and ISI
  • Industrialization and urbanization weakened the foundations of the neo-colonial order.
  • Dominant products of agriculture in 1920’s
      • Coffee
      • Sugar
      • Cotton
    • Food production was so neglected that Brasil had to import 4/5 of their grain
  • City life
    • Workers earned around $.60/day; 10-12 hours a day 6 days a week; women earned 60% of what men made & had to endure the patriarchal setup
brasil great depression and isi3
Brasil: Great Depression and ISI
  • Transforming society fell to the urban bourgeois (middle class)
  • 1922: series of 3 events that would rebel against the coffee oligarchy
    • February: Modern Art Week (p. 367 in HOLA)
    • March 1922: appearance of Marxist groups
    • July 1922: tenentes (junior officers) rose to prevent the seating of the elected president, Artur da Silva Bernardes.
        • “The officers revolt signaled the beginning of a struggle by the Brasilian bourgeoisie to seize powerfrom the rural oligarchy.” (Haynes and Keene p368)
prestes column
Prestes Column
  • Tenentes march over 14,000 miles to gain support for rebellion against Bernardes
  • Officers knew little of peasants, therefore, they did not find much help
      • Helped the officers to understand the plight of peasants. They were able to reflect and think about Brasil’s real problems.
      • The tenente reform movement began to discuss the need for economic development & social legislation to help the poor of Brasil
    • These conflicts gave rise to lower class mobilization
      • Black Brasilians joined a 1930’s black power movement that drew the FBI in for surveillance
      • Candomble, popular religion that combined the consciousness of the African past and created a spiritual community to resist white supremacist policies
      • Brasilian women rose to protect women laborers
vargas come to power
Vargas come to power
  • conflict was between the Coffee Oligarchy and the Urban Bourgeois
    • This rift led to the Liberal Alliance
  • They resented São Paulo’s dominant position. And they named Getúlio Vargas as their candidate
  • When the Coffee oligarchy sought to deny Vargas the presidency, Vargas overthrew them and became ruler of Brasil.
vargas as pres
Vargas as Pres.
  • Vargas presided over a heterogenous group
  • He endeared himself to the poor and middle class people of Brazil
  • Vargas became a dictator and cancelled elections from 1930-1945.
  • 1934 Constitution created new powers for gov’t
estado n vo
Estado Nôvo
  • As a result of uprising on 10 November, 1937
      • Vargas cancelled the 1938 elections
      • dissolved Congress
      • assumed dictatorial powers under a new constitution after the fascist model
      • political parties were abolished
      • strict censorship
  • Under theEstado Nôvo, Vargas regulated the economy and society as the custodian of the nat’l interest
estado n vo cont
Estado Nôvo cont.
  • See handout on ISI
  • Vargas’s ISI program encouraged industry through
        • import quotas
        • tax incentives
        • lowered duties on import goods needed for industrialization
        • long term low interest gov’t loans
    • During WWII the Vargas gov’t negotiated with the US for strategic materials to industrialize.
    • Brasil had used economic ties with Germany as a tool for getting the United States involved economically.
questions for you to answer alone answer all
Questions for you to answer, alone!Answer all
  • Explain the difference between the urban bourgeois & the coffee oligarchy.
  • Why did Brasil need to export so much?
  • Could you please explain ISI?
  • Why was ISI needed in Brasil?
  • What was the Estado Nôvo?
brasil during wwii
Brasil during WWII
  • To encourage and support Vargas, Pres. Roosevelt sent anti-submarine ships to the Brasilian navy and instructed the US embassy to purchase surplus coffee, cacao, and Brasil nuts.
    • Vargas gave control of his navy and air force to US Admiral Jonas H. Ingram. He also gave troops for the cause when asked.
      • Vargas hoped the his cooperation would encourage the US to support the industrial growth of Brazil.
  • Brasil came out of WWII with the most modern L.A. military force because of US help.
  • WWII accelerated industrial growth.
fascist structure or democratic fa ade
fascist structure or democratic façade
  • Vargas understood that his regime had to change from its fascist structure for a democratic façade or risk survival.
  • When it seemed that Vargas may have cancelled elections again he was deposed by the military.
  • 1946: General Eurico Dutra assumes power
      • did everything the opposite of Vargas
  • Assured by the military’s neutrality Vargas ran for pres. again in 1950.
        • He won!
vargas take 2
Vargas take #2
  • Campaign concentrated on the need to accelerate industrialization and expand and strengthen social welfare legislation.
  • A conflict (which stemmed from a labor dispute) where officers charged the gov’t of communism (untrue) and corruption (true) resulted in Vargas second time being kicked out of office.
        • The day he was supposed to leave he committed suicide.
impact of estado n vo
Impact of Estado Nôvo
  • Society was heavily controlled and regulated by gov’t (fascist)
  • Vargas appealed to the middle class by promising them economic security, education and order.
  • Vargas’s programs and rhetoric outpaced reality
        • Promises of schools and health facilities were never fulfilled
        • Race and gender and connections still played a major role in upward mobility.
vargas death
Vargas’ Death
  • Why was he mourned?
    • He did not do much for in reality for the average Brasilian.
    • He treated, in public, the poor with dignity
    • His speeches were appealing to the common Brasilian
  • Many of the problems pre-Vargas were around post-Vargas.
    • Brasil’s hierarchical structure still intact
    • domestic market remained fragmented
    • unemployed received few benefits
    • urban and agrarian workers still exploited
    • great landowners still controlled countryside
    • education only reached a few rich ones.
vargas death1
Vargas’ Death
  • “Vargas, was the ‘father of the poor,’ as they used to say on the radio, but of course he was truly the mother of the rich.”
        • woman textile worker’s assessment of Vargas and his populist programs

What evidence supports the aforementioned claim?