Philippine Spanish Colonial Era • Squad# 4 • Jeremiah Pua, Jeremy Tan, • Aaron Ng, Matt Ibasco, • Jules Marcelino (kIA)
Social Classes • Peninsulares - Full-blooded Spanish living in the Philippines and born in Spain. • Insulares - Full-blooded Spanish living in the Philippines and born in the Philippines as well. • Ilustrados(The Enlightened Ones) - Wealthy group of individuals born in the Philippines and were able to study abroad. • Chinese/Spanish Mestizos - People with mixed racial origins and economically sufficient.
Indio - Native/Full-blooded Filipinos. • Sangley - Full-blooded Chinese living in the Philippines.
Social Pyramid Peninsulares/ Insulares Ilustrados Chinese/Spanish Mestizos Indio/Sangley
Roman Catholicism in the Philippines • Magellan's Arrival to the islands of the Philippines mark the first attempt to convert the Filipinos to Christianity. This conversion was received by mixed responses. • Most of the Filipinos received the conversion with open arms, and were happily converted to Christianity. Some did not like the conversion, such as Lapu-Lapu. • He did not believe that the Filipinos needed to change, so he killed Magellan, making him the first ever Philippine hero. • Thats not to say that Christianity should not have been spread to our country, because if not, the Philippines would mostly be a Muslim country
After Magellan, the Spanish sent Miguel Lopez de Legaspi to the Philippines, and he conquered the Muslim settlement in Manila during 1570. • The religion slowly spread throughout the Philippines, evident in present Filipinos, most of whom are Christians.
Spread of Christianity in the Philippines • Mass Baptism - Baptizing the Filipinos is very large groups at once. It is said that the Filipinos interpreted Baptism as healing, which relies on the presence of Holy Water. • Reduccion Policy - Moving small groups of Filipino settlements into one, large town. This was to regulate the Filipinos, and teach them the basics of Christianity. • Early Attitude of the Spanish Clergy - early on, the Spanish clergy was forced to learn the Filipinos' native language if they want to teach them. Without Spanish schools, the priests were forced to say Mass in the Filipinos' native languages.
Adaptation of Christianity to the local culture - The Filipinos believed in spirits, which were responsible for the good, and bad. • They had statues and altars, all of which were destroyed by the Spaniards. • They replaced them with Christian adaptations of their early beliefs, and used theatrical presentations of Bible stories to appeal the Filipinos.
Mercantilist System • A economic theory and policy influential in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century that called for government regulation of a nation's economy in order to increase its power at the expense of rival nations. • Mercantilism's emphasis on the importance of gold and silver holdings as a sign of a nation's wealth and power led to policies designed to obtain precious metals through trade
Taxation System • Cedula Tax - A form of taxation implemented in 1884. This served as a paper which was used as proof that one was a colony of Spain and a legitimate member of a pueblo. Before, Filipinos and Chinese only had to pay tribute, but it was revised that all residents of the Philippines were obliged to pay the cedula.
Bandala System • A form of direct taxes that the spaniards implemented in which the natives were coerced to sell their products to the government at very low prices.
Kasama System • Under this arrangement, the landowners supplied the seed and cash necessary to tide cultivators over during the planting season, whereas the cultivators provided tools and work animals and were responsible for one-half the expense of crop production. • Usually, owner and sharecropper each took one-half of the harvest, although only after the former deducted a portion for expenses.
Polo y Servicio • A system of forced labor for 40 days for men ranging from 16 to 60 years of age who were obligated to give personal services to community projects. One could be exempted from polo by paying the falla (corruption of the Spanish Falta, meaning "absence") daily.
Bahala Na- It comes from the words "Bathala Na" more or less meaning "Leave It To God' or "Come What May". It means that we are defeatist in our attitude to life and we are only willing to do as much as what is necessary. • Padrino System- It is the value system where one gains favor, promotion or political appointment through family affiliation or friendship, as opposed to one's merit. • Veneration Of Saints- It is the special act of honoring a saint. It is often shown outwardly by respectfully bowing or making a sign of the cross before a saint's icon relics or statues. It is practiced by Catholic Churches.
Praying of the Rosary- It is the act of recalling in a prayerful manner, the life of Jesus in which it is categorized into several mysteries, whose names are according to the emotion during those periods of Christ’s life.
The Rise of the Ilustrados • In 1781, the Philippines was now administered directly from Spain. Developments in and out of the country helped to bring new ideas to the Philippines. • The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cut travel time to Spain. This prompted the rise of the Ilustrados, an enlightened Filipino upper class, since many young Filipinos were able to study in Europe. • Enlightened by the Propaganda Movement to the injustices of the Spanish colonial government and the "frailocracy", the Ilustrados originally clamored for adequate representation to the Spanish Cortes and later for independence.
José Rizal, the most celebrated intellectual and radical Ilustrado of the era, wrote the novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, which greatly inspired the movement for independence. • The Philippine Revolution began in 1896. Rizal was implicated in the outbreak of the revolution and executed for treason in 1896.
The Propaganda Movement • The Propaganda Movement (1872-1892) called for the assimilation of the Philippines as a province of Spain so that the same laws will be applied in the Philippines and that the inhabitants of the Philippines will experience the same civil liberties and rights as that of a Spanish citizen. • Men like Marcelo H. del Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena, and Jose Rizal bombarded both the Spanish and Filipino public with nationalist literature. Rizal's novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismobecame the bibles of Philippine nationalism.
In February 15, 1889, the Filipino propagandists were able to get together behind a new publication in Barcelona which they called La Solidaridad, and which for its more than five years of its existence became the principal organ of the propaganda movement. • It aimed mainly to advocate the Filipino cause at the Spanish parliament. • As the movement was failing in Europe, Jose Rizal returned to the Philippines and created his La Liga Filipina in 1892. It also failed after his arrest a just few days after the creation of the group.
The Katipunan • On the night of July 7, 1892, when Rizal was banished and exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao, Andrés Bonifacio, a member of the La Liga Filipina, founded the Katipunan in a house in Tondo, Manila. • Bonifacio did establish the Katipunan when it was becoming apparent to anti-Spanish Filipinos that societies like the La Liga Filipina would be suppressed by colonial authorities
The men gathered around a flickering table lamp, performed the ancient blood compact, and signed their membership papers with their own blood. • It was agreed to win more members to the society by means of the triangle method in which an original member would take in two new members who did not know each other, but knew only the original member who took them in. • Thus, original member A, for instance, would take in new members B and C. Both B and C knew A, but B and C did not know each other.
Declaration of Independence • In the presence of a huge crowd, independence was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 between four and five in the afternoon in Cavite at the ancestral home of General Emilio Aguinaldo some 30 kilometers South of Manila. • The event saw the unfurling of the National Flag of the Philippines, made in Hong Kong by Marcela Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo, and Delfina Herboza, and the performance of the Marcha Filipina Magdalo, as the Nation's National Anthem, now known as Lupang Hinirang, which was composed by Julián Felipe and played by the San Francisco de Malabon marching band.