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Periodicity - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Periodicity. What comes next. Make sense of the next shape. Same as the periodic table. Groups are vertical columns What do groups share in common? How about the rows?. Rows are called PERIODS.

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Presentation Transcript
same as the periodic table
Same as the periodic table
  • Groups are vertical columns
  • What do groups share in common?
  • How about the rows?
rows are called periods
Rows are called PERIODS
  • Periods have properties vary in a fairly regularly way from left to right – repeated in next period (PERIODICITY)
  • Anyone think of any patterns
  • /trends left to right?
metal to non metal
Metal to non-metal
  • Thus the ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY decreases as you go across the table (metals are conductors to non-metals , insulators)
  • Why?
your turn
Your Turn
  • Groups given out
  • In your groups construct a graph that illustrates the trend of your property.
  • Remember someone will need to explain why.
physical properties density
Physical Properties - Density
  • DENSITY (mass in a set volume) of the atom varies.
  • Metals are HIGHLY DENSE (compacted close together, allowing e-s to move easily)
  • Non metals are LESS DENSE
melting and boiling points
Melting and boiling points
  • When things are melted or boiled the bonds between them need to be overcome
  • Strength of bond leads to boiling/melting temp.
  • High temp = strong bond
  • Stronger bond in metals, than non-metals
atomic size
Atomic Size?
  • Determined by the space the e- take up
  • Think about what you know – predict what happens left to right .......
  • Atomic size decreases across table because e- fill in existing shell & 1 more P+ thus hold in closer
chemical formulae periodicity
Chemical formulae periodicity
  • i.e how many Cl & O to make a compound across the table?
  • Think of e- arrangement i.e. Li 1 Cl, Be needs 2 Cl etc.
  • Different due to chemicals
electronegavity
Electronegavity
  • Electronegativity is the attraction an atom has on an e- when chemically combined with another atom
  • i.e Gp 7 highest
  • Nobel gases 0
ionisation enthalpies
Ionisation Enthalpies
  • Ionisation enthalpy is the amount of energy needed to remove e-’s from atom
  • First ionisation enthalpy = 1st outermost e- to be removed
  • Increases enthalpy across a period - why do you think this happens?
trends
Trends
  • Look at what is different – down a gp shell of e-
  • Across a period – the atomic number (P+ ) and thus e-
  • 3 main factors you need to consider
    • charge of nucleus
    • Amount of shielding by inner e-
    • Distance between outer e- & nucleus
mendeleev prediction
Mendeleev Prediction
  • When Mendeleev constructed his periodic table he left gaps in it for new elements & predicted the PROPERTIES that element would have.
  • Germanium (Mendeleev called it eka-silicon)

Predicted appearance, RAM, density, reaction with water/acid/alkali/oxide & chloride

who am i
Who am I
  • A’s write an element down and now describe it to your partner in terms of density, mp/bp, atomic radi, oxide & chloride formed – see if they get it right
  • Description graphs p238/239/240 Chemical Ideas
  • Swap over
exam question tips
Exam Question Tips
  • Many times exam papers will ask you about an element that you have not covered – this is so you can apply your knowledge of the rest of the group/period to that case
  • Key skills is to learn to read the various graphs
  • Justify your answer – why will the melting point decrease?
write a summary of periodicity periodic patterns including these keywords
Write a summary of periodicity, periodic patterns including these keywords

Electron arrangement

Melting points/boiling points

Trends

Density

Atomic size

Ionisation enthalpies