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Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800. By M.D. Bergquist World History Instructor Alexander High School. Europe Developed Into Absolute Monarchies. Feudalism had collapsed. National monarchies replaced. Intense competition for land and trade lead to many wars.

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Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

Absolute Monarchs in Europe1500-1800

By M.D. Bergquist

World History Instructor

Alexander High School

Europe developed into absolute monarchies
Europe Developed Into Absolute Monarchies

  • Feudalism had collapsed.

  • National monarchies replaced.

  • Intense competition for land and trade lead to many wars.

  • Religious differences sparked civil wars.

  • Absolute monarchy emerged to protect the nation and preserve order.

  • “Gunpowder Revolution” began.

  • European Monarchies sought to consolidate power

  • Hapsburgs one of the most powerful families

    • Charles V was H.R.E. and the king of Spain

    • Divided his realm upon retirement

    • Philip II got Spain, Holland, and S. Italy

    • Ferdinand (brother) was H.R.E

www.theotherside.co.uk/tm-heritage/ background/flanders.htm


Philip ii king of spain 1556 1598
Philip IIKing of Spain (1556-1598)

  • Philip II 1556

  • Sought to strengthen power through war

  • Seizes Portugal 1580

  • Wealthy from Gold and silver from Americas

  • Defender of Catholicism

  • Golden Age of Spanish art and literature

  • Weakened Spain by incessant wars and poor economic choices.

www.tudorhistory.org/ people/

B last of the spanish hapsburgs
B. Last of the Spanish Hapsburgs

  • 1550-1650, Spain’s golden century

    • Miguel de Cervantes’ Don Quixote

  • Wars, inflation, and wastefulness hurt Spain

    • Lost skilled artisans in Jews and Muslims

  • Philip’s successors overtaxed the people

    • Rebellion

  • Charles II, 1665 was the last Hapsburg

    • No heir

    • Other kings plotted to take over

France was wracked by religious warfare until henry of navarre agreed to be king 1589 1610
France was wracked by religious warfare until Henry of Navarre agreed to be king (1589-1610)

  • First of Bourbon dynasty

  • Issued Edict of Nantes which promised religious toleration.

  • Began to rebuild French economy.

  • Assassinated leaving 9-year old son to rule.


Cardinal richelieu created a strong monarchy
Cardinal Richelieu created a strong monarchy. Navarre agreed to be king

  • Regent (1624-1642) for Louis XIII (1610-1643)

  • Richelieu broke the power of nobles and Protestants by destroying walled cities and castles.

  • Used the middle class for government jobs.

  • Challenged Hapsburg power by intervening in Thirty Years War.


When louis xiii died leaving his five year old son as king cardinal mazarin became regent 1643 1661
When Louis XIII died leaving his five year-old son as king Cardinal Mazarin became regent (1643-1661).

  • Continued Richelieu policies.

  • Generally disliked by the French people because of increased taxes and continued consolidation of royal power.

  • Fronde Revolt by nobles harshly suppressed.


Louis xiv becomes the most powerful king in europe 1643 1715
Louis XIV becomes the most powerful king in Europe Cardinal Mazarin became regent (1643-1661).(1643-1715)

  • When Mazarin died, Louis assumed full control at age 23.

  • Worked long hours to strengthen France.

  • National army

  • Broke power of nobles and Protestants.

  • Restored economy via mercantilism.

  • Builder of the Palace of Versailles.


Solidified absolutism
Solidified absolutism Cardinal Mazarin became regent (1643-1661).

  • Promoted own image:

    • Sun King

    • Louis the Great

    • God’s representative on earth

Religious unification
Religious unification Cardinal Mazarin became regent (1643-1661).

  • “One king, one law, one faith”

  • Revoked Edict of Nantes, 1685

  • Louis XIV, The Sun King Cardinal Mazarin became regent (1643-1661).

  • The best and worst example

  • Of absolute monarchy.

  • “L’Etat c’est moi!”

  • Crippled France by fighting

  • a series of losing wars and

  • revoking the Edict of Nantes

  • On his deathbed he urged his

  • young grandson and heir

  • to avoid wars.

Ferdinand ii holy roman emperor 1619 1637
Ferdinand II Cardinal Mazarin became regent (1643-1661).Holy Roman Emperor (1619-1637)

  • Wanted greater control of his Protestant nobles.

  • Touched off the Thirty Years War, which eventually involved most of western Europe.

  • Took German States 100 years to rebuild.


The arrival of King Gustavus Cardinal Mazarin became regent (1643-1661).

Adolfus’ Swedish forces.

Next slide:

Soldiers sack and loot a home.

The Hanging Tree

The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)

  • Hapsburgs v. German Protestants

  • Sweden v. Hapsburgs

  • France v. Hapsburgs

  • Peace of Westphalia, 1648 - created modern Europe.

Musketeers prepare to fire a volley

The Thirty Years War Cardinal Mazarin became regent (1643-1661).

Many cities were destroyed and an estimated 4 million

Germans died. This is the Sack of Magdeburg

www.millikin.edu/history/ civilconflict/photo4.htm

Eastern europe
Eastern Europe Cardinal Mazarin became regent (1643-1661).

  • Slower to develop due to the many ethnic minorities and lack of development—primarily agricultural.

  • Feudalism still strong.

  • Hapsburg Family in control.

  • Maria Theresa, Queen of Austria. (1740-1780)


  • 1740, Maria Theresa inherited the throne Cardinal Mazarin became regent (1643-1661).

    • Pragmatic Sanction was signed in 1718 to protect her rule

    • Charles VI did this

    • No training, but she was a good ruler and made Austria stronger

Prussia Cardinal Mazarin became regent (1643-1661).

  • France and Prussia opposed pragmatic sanction

  • Brandenburg-Prussia was ruled by the Hohenzollern family

  • Gained land in the Thirty Years’ War

  • 1. Great Elector

    • Frederick William created a permanent standing army

    • The nobles, or Junkers, opposed his plan to raise taxes

    • Frederick allowed the Junkers to be free of taxes and to have power over peasants

    • Frederick I took over and became a king for his help against Louis XIV

Frederick the great 1740 1786 of prussia was determined to make prussia the dominate power
Frederick the Great (1740-1786) of Prussia was determined to make Prussia the dominate power.

  • Created a strong aggressive military.

    “ Most nations have an army, Prussia is an army with a nation”.

  • Promoted religious toleration and education at home.

  • Successfully made Prussia dominate power by defeating Austrians.

  • ( Seven Years War)

www.ncl.ac.uk/~nhistory/ german.htm

Austria vs prussia
Austria vs. Prussia army)

  • Frederick the Great assumed that Maria would be easy to bully b/c she was a woman

  • Battled Prussia for a while but eventually lost

  • Eventually both countries (Austria and Prussia) got involved in different alliances throughout Europe

Ivan III army)

The Great

Ivan IV

The Terrible

Peter the Great




www.xenophongi.org/rushistory/ rusinwax/wax28s.jpg

www.ronaldbrucemeyer.com/ archive/peter.gif

Peter the great

  • transform Russia into a modern state.

  • Westernization

  • Peter realized country needed to modernize to catch up with rest of Europe

  • Wanted westernization; to bring elements of Western culture to Russia

  • 1697, journeyed to western Europe to see what Russia needed to modernize

  • New Skills

  • Peter traveled in disguise, was sometimes recognized anyway

  • Learned hands-on skills, especially shipbuilding

  • Recruited European experts to bring skills to Russia

  • Rebellion

  • Trip cut short by rebellion of streltsy, military corps with political influence

  • Thought streltsy wanted sister on throne; had members tortured, executed

  • Disbanded streltsy, organized more modern army

Peter also founded a new city reforms

  • Early 1700s, fought Sweden to acquire warm-water port

    • Other ports choked by ice much of year

    • Port farther south on Baltic Sea to keep Russia open to western trade all year, connect Russia to west

  • On land won from Sweden, Peter built new capital, St. Petersburg

    • Russia’s government moved to new city

    • Featured Western-style architecture

English monarchs attempted to establish absolute system
English monarchs attempted to establish absolute system reforms

  • James I (1603-1625) fought with Parliament over his authority.

  • Puritans wanted Anglican Church to reflect a Calvinist view.

  • James refused to cooperate, except for a new Bible translation.


Charles loses his head in an argument
Charles loses his head in an argument reforms

  • Charles I (1625-1649) pursued an aggressive foreign policy with Spain.

  • Continually sought new funds from Parliament, members checked his power by forcing him to sign the Petition of Right, 1628.

  • When Charles dissolved Parliament and tried to raise money, civil war resulted.

: www.mdarchives.state.md.us/.../ 01glance/images/charles1.jpg

Oliver cromwell defeats king s forces and became lord protector
Oliver Cromwell defeats king’s forces and became Lord Protector

  • Charles executed for treason.

  • On paper, England was a republic but in practice a dictatorship.

  • Cromwell suppressed revolt in Ireland.

  • Imposed Puritan ideals on English.


Monarchy restored
Monarchy Restored Protector

  • When Cromwell died, so did his government.

  • English invited

    Charles II (1660-1685) to restore monarchy.

  • Reign was a period of calm marked by court decadence.

Monarchy in crisis
Monarchy In Crisis Protector

  • On Charles’ death, brother became king.

  • James II (1685-1688) was pro-Catholic, which angered many.

  • When his young wife produced an heir, Parliament feared a renewed period of turmoil and removed king from power.

www.bbc.co.uk/.../monarchs_leaders/ images/james_2_full.jpg

The glorious revolution william and mary restore english monarchy
The Glorious Revolution ProtectorWilliam and Mary Restore English Monarchy

  • Parliament invited Mary, daughter of Charles I, and a Protestant, to jointly rule with her husband, William of Orange. (1689-1702)

  • Both agreed to follow Parliamentary laws and accepted English Bill of Rights.

  • England became the only limited monarchy in Europe. Parliament in control.

www.camelotintl.com/heritage/ rulers/images/willmary.gif