ELECTRICAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND ITS IMPACT IN AFRICA Prof. M.T.E Kahn NeuroMorphoGenics/NMG Africa. Strategies for energy management. Abstract. Introduction.
ELECTRICAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND ITS IMPACT IN AFRICA
Prof. M.T.E Kahn
Strategies for energy management
Electrical energy management is a strategy of adjusting and optimizing energy demand using system and procedures to reduce energy requirement and consumption per unit output.
The aim of the research is to develop techniques to be used to optimize power consumed by industries. One of the cost effective energy saving mechanism is to reduce demand of the system, while maintaining the quality of the product. Energy efficient technique has been mentioned as one of the option for energy and demand reduction. Most of industrial loads present inductive characteristics of which the power factor of the plant is lagging and cause the increase of power drawn from the supply. In this research STATCOM has been developed to provide flexible power factor correction at any given load. Introduction of this system support demand side management (DSM) objectives, that is the power factor of the plant can automatically vary with the variation of loads. This allows industries to save money for purchasing energy and improve the reliability of the power plant as well as mitigate the environment based impact.
Energy situation in SSA
Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) have 12% of the world population. It comprises of 47countries with total generation of 68GW.
The access to electricity is limited to 24%of population.
The electrical energy consumption is comparatively very low.
The electrification rate is given in the figure 1
Development of self commutating power factor correction
Use of energy efficient techniques
The primary objectives of this research is to minimize the amount of power consumed by manufacturing industries (cement) so as to improve the reliability of power supply industry (PSI)
The governing equation for assessing cost effectiveness of energy efficient motors and lighting is given in equation 1 and the payback period as a function of % change of operating hour and different energy charge in Figure 6
It works like a rotating synchronous machine. The governing equation is given in equation 2
As per load profile, the industry is not implementing DSM, hence none of the objective below is not achieved.
Per capita electricity consumption is 457 kWh compared to the average per capita of other developing countries of 1,155 kWh. excluding South Africa, the value fall to 124 kWh as shown in figure 2.
The main circuit of STATCOM is given in figure 7
Methods and strategies
The power crisis in Sub Saharan Africa is marked by insufficient generating capacity, unreliable supplies and low rates of connection to the electricity grid. Industrial sector is among the energy intensive sectors of the electric utility supply in SSA. Implementation of energy management in this sector can have multiple benefits including reduction of energy consumption which leads to reduction of the money spent on purchasing energy and defer the construction of new power plants, this will save the money for purchasing fuel for power generation and preserve the environment. Reduction of peak demands has the biggest energy cost-saving potentials. Various mechanisms introduced can lead to energy saving. One of the DSM option used to limit demand at peak time is load shedding. Flexible power factor correction is important for the implementation of this DSM option. The STATCOM is developed to for power factor correction. The result shows automatic power factor correction with both the variation and type of load takes place accordingly.
Electrical energy distribution in cement production process
Table: Industrial sector primary electricity demand