solutions n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
SOLUTIONS PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
SOLUTIONS

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 61
hasad-horton

SOLUTIONS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

88 Views
Download Presentation
SOLUTIONS
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. SOLUTIONS

  2. Pen or Pencil Piece of paper TAKE NOTES ON PAGE 3 Take out:

  3. What is a SOLUTION?

  4. Solution is a homogenous mixture of substances.

  5. What is a SOLUTE?

  6. Solute is a substance being dissolved. Hint: it is usually present in smaller amount SUGAR SOLUTE

  7. What is a SOLVENT?

  8. Solvent is the substance that dissolves the solute. Hint: it is usually present in the greater amount. WATER SOLVENT

  9. + = +(tea) SOLUTE + SOLVENT = SOLUTION (or)

  10. Regents Question: 08/02 #7 Which mixture can be separated by using the equipment shown? (1) NaCl(aq) and SiO2(s) (2) NaCl(aq) and C6H12O6(aq) (3) CO2(aq) and NaCl(aq) (4) CO2(aq) and C6H12O6(aq) þ (aq) stands for aqueous which means dissolved in water. Dissolved particles are too small to be trapped by the filter.

  11. Solubility: Maximum quantity of solute that can dissolve in an amount of solvent at a specified temperature Measured in grams(solute)/grams(solvent)

  12. Rate of Solution: measure of how fast a substance dissolves Factors that the Rate of Solution

  13. Size of Particles: (solid solute) As surface area  rate of solution  To increase surface area, crush large crystals Example: sugar granules vs. sugar cubes Factors that the Rate of Solution

  14. Stirring: Makes solute come in contact with solvent • Amount of solute in solution: The less solute in solution the faster more will dissolve. Factors that the Rate of Solution

  15. Temperature: For liquids/solids: As T  Rate of Soln.  For gases: As T  Rate of Soln.  Factors that Affect the Rate of Solution

  16. Nature of solute and solvent: “Like dissolves like” polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents example: ionic solids in water non polar solutes in non polar solvents Factors that Affect Solubility

  17. Temperature: For Ionic solids: as T solubility  example: Jell-O in boiling water For gases: as T solubility  example: warm soda goes flat Factors that Affect Solubility

  18. Pressure: For solids/liquids: As P changes, solubility does not change For gases: as P solubility  Effervescence: escape of gas from soln. Factors that Affect Solubility

  19. Solubility is the maximum amount of solute that a solvent can hold at a given temperature. • An unsaturated solution is one in which the solvent can dissolve more solute • A saturated solution is one in which the solvent has as much solute as it can hold • A supersaturated solution is one in which there is more solute dissolved than a solvent can normally hold. • Make a supersaturated solution by cooling a saturated solution • Supersaturated solutions are unstable and will precipitate the excess solute when a seed crystal is added. Solubility of a nonvolatile solute depends on temperature.

  20. Page 4

  21. Page 4

  22. Page 6

  23. Page 9

  24. Notes time – Take out paper

  25. Table G shows the solubility of some gases and solids at various temperatures when dissolved in 100 grams of water.

  26. A solution which is on the line is saturated • A solution below the line is unsaturated • A solution above the line is supersaturated

  27. Unsaturated – the test crystal dissolves Saturated – the test crystal settles to the bottom Supersaturated – a large amount of crystals precipitate from the solution Add a test crystal to see if a solution is unsaturated, saturated or supersaturated.

  28. Page 10

  29. Regents Question: 06/02 #40 According to Reference Table G, which solution is saturated at 30°C? (1) 12 grams of KClO3 in 100 grams of water (2) 12 grams of KClO3 in 200 grams of water (3) 30 grams of NaCl in 100 grams of water (4) 30 grams of NaCl in 200 grams of water þ

  30. Regents Question: 08/02 #48 One hundred grams of water is saturated with NH4Cl at 50°C. According to Table G, if the temperature is lowered to 10°C, what is the total amount of NH4Cl that will precipitate? (1) 5.0 g (3) 30. g (2) 17 g (4) 50. g þ

  31. Regents Question: 01/03 #65-66 When cola, a type of soda pop, is manufactured, CO2 (g) is dissolved in it. A capped bottle of cola contains CO2 (g) under high pressure. When the cap is removed, how does pressure affect the solubility of the dissolved CO2 (g)? A glass of cold cola is left to stand 5 minutes at room temperature. How does temperature affect the solubility of the CO2 (g)? As the pressure decreases, the solubility decreases. As the temperature increases, the solubility decreases.

  32. Regents Question: 06/03 #42 Hexane (C 6 H 14 ) and water do not form a solution. Which statement explains this phenomenon? (1) Hexane is polar and water is nonpolar. (2) Hexane is ionic and water is polar. (3) Hexane is nonpolar and water is polar. (4) Hexane is nonpolar and water is ionic. þ

  33. Page 13

  34. Soluble will dissolve Insoluble will not dissolve Page 21 top

  35. Not all substances are soluble in water Reference Table F lists solubility rules and exceptions to those rules. Solubility Guidelines

  36. Soluble Not Soluble

  37. Regents Question: 08/02 #40 Which of the following compounds is least soluble in water? (1) copper (II) chloride (2) aluminum acetate (3) iron (III) hydroxide (4) potassium sulfate þ

  38. Regents Question: 06/03 #14 • According to Table F, which of these salts is least soluble in water? • LiCl • (2) RbCl • (3) FeCl2 • (4) PbCl2 þ

  39. Page 21 bottom

  40. Page 24-25

  41. Concentration of Solution • The concentration of a solution is a measurement of the amount of solute dissolved in solution. • Dilute is very little solute • Concentrated is at or near saturation • Molarity is a [concentration] of moles/liter • Table T

  42. Moles Molarity = Liters Regents Question: 06/02 #42 What is the molarity of a solution that contains 0.50 mole of NaOH in 0.50 liter of solution? (1) 1.0 M (3) 0.25 M (2) 2.0 M (4) 0.50 M þ

  43. Regents Question: 08/02 #36 How many moles of solute are contained in 200 milliliters of a 1 M solution? (1) 1 (3) 0.8 (2) 0.2 (4) 200 þ

  44. Molarity = moles liters Na 1 x 23.0 = 23.0 I 1 x 126.9 = 126.9 149.9 g / mole 0.010M = x 1.0 L Regents Question: 08/02 #49 What is the total number of grams of NaI(s) needed to make 1.0 liter of a 0.010 M solution? (1) 0.015 (3) 1.5 (2) 0.15 (4) 15 þ X = 0.010 moles 0.010 moles x 149.9 g/mole =

  45. Page 28-29

  46. Page 31

  47. Page 33

  48. Parts Per Million • Parts per million ppm is often used to measure concentrations of solutes that are present in very small amounts Mass of Solute Mass of Solution X 1,000,000 Parts Per Million =

  49. Page 35 and 36 and 37

  50. Page 43