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insid e . Arun Yenumula Singireddy Srikanth. January, 28 2004. Agenda. International Technology Roadmap for Semi-conductors Moore’s Law – the base for Intel What’s going on in Intel now Investing in future Focus of research Corporate Quickfacts.

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insid e


Arun Yenumula

Singireddy Srikanth

January, 28 2004

  • International Technology Roadmap for Semi-conductors
  • Moore’s Law – the base for Intel
  • What’s going on in Intel now
  • Investing in future
  • Focus of research
  • Corporate Quickfacts

Inside Intel

objectives of itrs
Objectives of ITRS ?
  • It’s an assessment of semi-conductor technology requirements.
  • Ensure advancements in the performance of integrated circuits (ICs).
  • It presents an industry wide consensus on the ‘best current estimate’ of the industry research & development.
  • Ensures cooperation between global industry manufacturers.

Inside Intel

pioneers in nanotechnology


Nanomix Inc.


Nanowave Inc.

NanoScale Inc.

NanoTech Inc.

SI Diamond Technology



NanoLab Inc.

Hysitron Inc

Sukgyung AT

NanoDynamics Inc.

NanoDevices Inc.

International Mezzo Technologies Inc.

Nanophase Technologies Corporation

Carbon Nanotechnologies Inc.

Applied NanoWorks Inc.

Pioneers in NanoTechnology

Inside Intel

intel raising the bar
Intel – Raising the bar
  • “Intel believes in innovation. We're driven by it. We live by it. And it's this principle that led us to create the world's first microprocessor back in 1971”
  • Intel is a leader in semiconductor manufacturing and technology. In 2002, it spent $ 4 billion on R&D.
  • The company's technology investments differentiate Intel from competitors and provide the foundation for future growth.
  • Intel's mission is to be the preeminent building block supplier to the Internet economy.

Inside Intel

moore s law
Moore’s Law …


  • Moore stated that the transistor density in Integrated Circuits (ICs) doubles every couple of years…
  • This exponential growth and ever-shrinking transistor size result in increased performance and decreased cost…
  • The mission of Intel's technology development team is to continue to break down barriers to Moore's Law.

Inside Intel

moore s law graphic
Moore’s Law…(graphic)

Year of introduction Transistors

4004 1971 2,250

8008 1972 2,500

8080 1974 5,000

8086 1978 29,000

286 1982 120,000

386™ processor 1985 275,000

486™ DX processor 1989 1,180,000

Pentium® processor 1993 3,100,000

Pentium II processor 1997 7,500,000

Pentium III processor 1999 24,000,000

Pentium 4 processor 2000 42,000,000

Itanium 2 processor 2003 410 million

Inside Intel

focus of research nanotechnology

Focus of Research…Nanotechnology

Computational NanoVision

Logic Processes



need for a computational nanovision
Need for a computational NanoVision…
  • Recent developments in nanotechnology and life sciences are creating structures measured in nanometers.
  • Silicon manufacturing technology is shrinking critical dimensions of structures to scales well below 100nm.
  • Applications in nanotechnologies require high-precision analysis tools for measurement and visual feedback.

Inside Intel

  • Noise and insufficient spatial sampling by imaging tools…
  • Artifacts caused by the imaging mechanisms are main sources of errors….
  • The structures and dynamics of nano-scale objects exhibit a high degree of variation imposed by the natural variability of atomic surfaces and by stochastic behavior….

Inside Intel

how to face the challenges
How to face the challenges…
  • The Computational Nanovision project, launched in Mar 2002.
  • Intel’s focus is well balanced between basic research and work.
  • Intel’s research is directly applicable in the growing fields of Silicon Manufacturing and Biotechnology.
  • Engaged with researchers to develop new measurement tools and techniques for analyzing nano-scale particles.
  • Intel is collaborating with a number of university researchers, at MIT, UCLA, Brown Univ., e.t.c.

Inside Intel

research agenda
Research Agenda:
  • Intel is taking a model-based approach to this research.
  • Detailed models of the nanostructures of microprocessors are readily available with Intel.
  • Intel is very familiar with existing imaging tools ……..used to develop new techniques for analyzing nanostructures within images.
  • The research will initially focus on two model-based image sequence analysis techniques:
      • image reconstruction
      • feature detection and classification

Inside Intel

1 image reconstruction
1. Image Reconstruction
  • Model-based, nonlinear techniques, such as anisotropic diffusion to detect features within noisy images are investigated.
  • Quantitative methods of reconstructing nanostructure images are being explored so the user can see features that are not visible in the noise.

Right: Noisy image from a direct-write nano-machining tool, showing sub-micrometer silicon structures.

Left: De-noised real-time reconstruction of the image by nonlinear spatio-temporal filtering techniques.

Inside Intel

2 nanofeature detection and classification
2. Nanofeature detection and classification
  • Automated visual feedback requires quantitative data analysis supported by model knowledge of the observed structures.
  • Probabilistic techniques are being explored for automatically detecting and classifying nano-features, to assist users and to reduce the risk of human error.

Detection of a wire in noisy data.

Color: Noisy image of wire.

Grey: Estimated position based upon statistical model.

Inside Intel

logic processes
Logic Processes

0.57 µm2 6-T SRAM Cell

65nm Logic Technology

  • Intel has fabricated fully-functional 4 Mb SRAM arrays an ultra-small 0.57 µm2 SRAM cell on its 65 nm generation logic technology.

• The 65 nm process incorporates key technology elements needed on high performance microprocessors, including strained silicon transistors and 8 layers of copper interconnect using a low-k dielectric.

  • Intel's advanced in-house mask making capabilities allow us to extend 193 nm lithography tools down to the dimensions needed on the 65 nm generation.

0.46 x 1.24= 0.57 µm2

• Ultra-small SRAM cell used in 65 nm process packs six transistors in an area of 0.57 µm2

• Fully functional 4 Mbit SRAM arrays have been made with all bits working

• Approximately 10 million transistors could fit in the area of the tip of a ball point pen (1mm2).

Inside Intel

90 nm strained silicon transistors
90 nm Strained Silicon Transistors
  • As first announced in 2002, Intel is employing a unique strained silicon transistor technology on its 90 nm logic process.
  • A unique selectively deposited SiGe source-drain structure induces channel strain in PMOS devices, improving drive current by 25% relative to non-strained devices.
  • A high stress Si3N4 cap layer induces channel strain in NMOS devices, improving drive current by 10% relative to non-strained devices.
  • NMOS and PMOS transistors are optimized separately for high performance using this approach to strain engineering and the added process cost is only ~2%
  • This approach to transistor strain engineering is scalable to future generations.

Inside Intel

intel com@research lithography

Intel a world leader in advanced lithography…

why is it a leader
Why is it a leader ???
  • leader in advanced lithography with the early introduction of 248 nm and 193 nm lithography tools into high volume manufacturing.
  • strong investments in Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) research .
  • Started early projects in Advanced Mask Making(AMM) and EUV Lithography.
  • Delivered the first industry-standard format mask for EUV lithography.
  • Intel is leading a consortium of six semiconductor companies, called the EUV LLC (Limited Liability Corporation), to develop this technology.
  • First Processors built using EUV technology are expected in 2005.

Inside Intel

what is a mask anyway
What is a MASK anyway ???
  • Masks are used to make ever-smaller transistors.
  • Intel internal mask shop provides major

competitive advantages.

– Leading edge capabilities

– Fast TPT (Throughput Time)

– Integrated services & solutions

– Mask cost advantage

• Intel has developed world leading 65nm node masks enabling Intel Silicon process development.

  • A mask (above) is :
  • A highly intricate and complex stencil used to direct create patterns of light onto a silicon wafer.
  • The light that does not get blocked by the mask etches microscopic geometric shapes onto the wafer's surface.

Inside Intel

unveil first extreme ultraviolet chip making machine
Unveil First Extreme Ultraviolet Chip-Making Machine…
  • Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) radiation with a wavelength in the range of 10 to 14 nanometers (nm) to carry out projection imaging.
  • Akin to photography, lithography is used to print circuits onto microchips.
  • lead to microprocessors that are much faster than today's powerful chips and create memory chips with increased storage capacity.
  • EUV lithography was developed because the current chip-printing technology is expected to reach its physical limits in the next few years.
  • EUV lithography technology allow semiconductor manufacturers to print circuit lines well below 0.1 micron - to 1nm.
  • Processors built using EUV technology are expected to reach speeds of up to 10 GHz in 2005-2006.(Today P4 clocks 2GHz)
  • Intel developed a prototype machine, called the Engineering Test Stand (ETS) .

Inside Intel


Experimental Results:

Above: profiles of line and space patterns imaged by the 10X camera for line and space widths of 200 nm, 150 nm, and 100 nm.

Side: cross-sectioned resist images of 80 nm lines and spaces (with a line space ratio of 1:2) taken by a 10X camera.

Inside Intel

what s up on the bio front
What’s up on the Bio-front ???
  • Intel and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center to explore the use of Nanotechnology tools for early disease detection.
  • The Intel Raman Bioanalyzer System™ shows up molecular differences between healthy cells and diseased cells.
  • The instrument beams lasers onto tiny samples, such as blood serum, to create images that reveal the chemical structure of molecules.
  • The goal is “Use this technology, previously used to detect microscopic imperfections on silicon chips, can also detect subtle traces of disease”

Inside Intel

how intel raman bioanalyzer system works
How Intel Raman Bioanalyzer System works???
  • based on a technique known as Raman spectroscopy.
  • Intel uses this technique to analyze subtle chemical compositions during the chip fabrication process.
  • By shining a laser beam at an object, molecules within the substance are stimulated to give off a spectrum that can be detected by sensors in a Raman spectrometer
  • Every substance has a unique chemical composition… produces a unique Raman spectrum - the equivalent of a chemical barcode tag.
  • will help them identify proteins in human blood serum that foretell the susceptibility, presence or prognosis of diseases such as cancer.

Inside Intel



  • Developed by “ Intel Precision Biology”. It is a research team of chemists, engineers, biologists and physicists.
  • They combine expertise in microbiology and molecular analysis with Intel's core expertise in microelectronics, MEMS and nanotechnology.
  • conducting long-range research to create fundamental advances in sensor technology….
  • to work together with the medical community to make it possible to one day use chips to diagnose disease and improve people's health.

Inside Intel

intel s fight against alzheimer s disease
Intel’s fight against Alzheimer’s disease…
  • Intel's Proactive Health strategic research project is developing in-home technology prototypes to test applications that address the needs of the world's aging population.
  • A wireless "sensor network" made up of thousands of small, nano-sensing devices that are embedded throughout the home to monitor important behavioral tendencies such as sleep and eating patterns, location.
  • send prompts to a person such as reminders to take medication.
  • The data collected by the sensor network could help in the detection and prevention of dementia or other medical conditions, as well as help a caregiver locate a patient in need.

Inside Intel



Intel is using cutting-edge state-of-the-art technologies to improve our lives in every way possible, from the chips we use in our computers to biotechnology…..It is truly doing a great job.

Andy S. Groove

Inside Intel

  • transistor – A simple on/off switch. Current flow from the source to the drain is determined by whether the gate is at high or low voltage.
  • source – The part of the transistor where current flows from. It consists of doped silicon,which lowers its resistance.
  • drain – The part of the transistor where current flows to.
  • gate – A region whose electrical state determines whether the transistor is on or off.
  • gate dielectric – A thin layer underneath the gate that isolates the gate from the channel. In today’s chips, it consists of silicon dioxide.
  • Strained silicon – A technique for speeding up transistors.
  • high-k material – A material that can replace silicon dioxide as a gate dielectric. It has good insulating properties and also creates high capacitance.

Inside Intel

  • Computational NanoVision :
  • Future Research:
  • Research:
  • Intel’s next step:,4149,1397148,00.asp
  • Intel’s history:
  • 90nm logic process-presentation:
  • International Technology Roadmap:
  • Nanotechnology Companies:
  • Intel Biotechnology:
  • Glossary:
  • Intel archives:

Inside Intel

intel corporate snapshot
Intel Corporate Snapshot…
  • Year founded: 1968
  • World’s 1st microprocessor: 1971
  • Number of employees: 78,000
  • Products and services: over 450
  • Fortune 500 ranking: 65
  • Stock symbol: INTC
  • Worldwide offices and facilities: 294
  • Net Revenues:$ 26.7b (2002)
  • Net Income:$ 3.117b (2002)
  • R&D Investment:$ 4b (2002)
  • US-Top 10 patent list: 2004

Bob Noyce: Founder

Gordon Moore: Founder

Andy Groove: Employee#4

Inside Intel