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The Lymphatic System and Immunity. Functions. Draining excess interstitial fluid. Transporting dietary lipids. Lymphatic vessels: In spaces between cells Closed at one end, converge to form larger vessels (like veins) to trunks to right and left duct to

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Functions

Draining excess interstitial fluid

Transporting dietary lipids

slide3

Lymphatic vessels:

  • In spaces between cells
  • Closed at one end,
  • converge to form larger
  • vessels (like veins) to trunks
  • to right and left duct to
  • venous blood
  • Contain valves to ensure one
  • way movement
  • Flow through lymph nodes
  • (masses of B and T cells)
  • Lymphatic capillaries:
  • Anchored by elastic
  • filaments
  • Open and close with
  • pressure differences
lymphatic organs tissues
Lymphatic Organs & Tissues
  • Divided into 2 groups
    • Primary lymphatic organs
      • Sites where stem cells divide & become immunocompetent
      • Red bone marrow, thymus
    • Secondary lymphatic organs
      • Sites where immune response occurs
      • Lymph nodes, spleen, lymphatic nodules, etc.
slide6

Thymus:

  • Located between sternum and aorta (mediastinum)
  • Two lobes divided into lobules
  • Cortex (outer layer) of immature cells
        • -T cells: antigenic activity:
    • -dendritic cells: assist maturation
    • -epithelial cells: “educate” pre-T cells by positive selection
    • -macrophages: clear debris and dead cells
  • Medulla (inner layer) of mature T cells, epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages
slide7

Lymph nodes:

  • Lymph flows in
  • through afferent
  • vessels and out
  • through efferent
  • vessels
  • Made up of nodules
    • -Primary nodules: B cells
    • -Secondary nodules: plasma cell and memory B cell formation
slide8

Spleen:

  • Located between stomach and
  • diaphragm
  • Contains white and red pulp
    • -White pulp: lymphocytes and macrophages around central arteries
    • -Red pulp: red blood cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and granulocytes
      • Removes worn out or defective
      • RBCs
      • Stores platelet
      • Produces blood cells in fetus
slide9

Lymphatic nodules: no capsule

  • Throughout mucus membranes (MALT= mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue)
  • Tonsils

MALT

slide11

Nonspecific Resistance/

  • Innate Defenses: born with and offer immediate protection
  • First line of defense-
  • skin and mucous
  • membranes
    • Physical and chemical
    • barrier
slide13

Phagocyte

Inflammation

NK

adaptive defense system third line of defense
Adaptive Defense System: Third Line of Defense
  • Three aspects of adaptive defense
    • Antigen specific—recognizes and acts against particular foreign substances
    • Systemic—not restricted to the initial infection site
    • Memory—recognizes and mounts a stronger attack on previously encountered pathogens
adaptive defense system third line of defense1
Adaptive Defense System: Third Line of Defense
  • Cells of the adaptive defense system
    • Lymphocytes respond to specific antigens
      • B lymphocytes (B cells)
      • T lymphocytes (T cells)
    • Macrophages help lymphocytes
adaptive defense system third line of defense2
Adaptive Defense System: Third Line of Defense
  • Immunocompetent—cell becomes capable of responding to a specific antigen by binding to it
  • Cells of the adaptive defense system
    • Lymphocytes
      • Originate from hemocytoblasts in the red bone marrow
      • B lymphocytes become immunocompetent in the bone marrow (remember B for Bone marrow)
      • T lymphocytes become immunocompetent in the thymus (remember T for Thymus)
slide20

KEY:

Red bone marrow: site of lymphocyte origin

Primary lymphoid organs: site of

development of immunocompetence as

B or T cells

Red

bone marrow

Secondary lymphoid organs: site of

antigen encounter, and activation to

become effector and memory B or T cells

Immature (naive)

lymphocytes

Figure 12.11, step 1a

slide21

KEY:

Red bone marrow: site of lymphocyte origin

Primary lymphoid organs: site of

development of immunocompetence as

B or T cells

Red

bone marrow

Secondary lymphoid organs: site of

antigen encounter, and activation to

become effector and memory B or T cells

Immature (naive)

lymphocytes

Lymphocytes destined to become T cells

migrate (in blood) to the thymus and develop immunocompetence there. B cells develop immunocompetence in red bone marrow.

1

Thymus

Bone marrow

Figure 12.11, step 1b

slide22

KEY:

Red bone marrow: site of lymphocyte origin

Primary lymphoid organs: site of

development of immunocompetence as

B or T cells

Red

bone marrow

Secondary lymphoid organs: site of

antigen encounter, and activation to

become effector and memory B or T cells

Immature (naive)

lymphocytes

Lymphocytes destined to become T cells

migrate (in blood) to the thymus and develop immunocompetence there. B cells develop immunocompetence in red bone marrow.

1

Thymus

Bone marrow

Immunocompetent but still naive lymphocytes leave the thymus and bone marrow. They “seed” the lymph nodes, spleen, and other lymphoid tissues, where they encounter their antigen and become activated.

2

Lymph nodes,

spleen, and other

lymphoid tissues

Figure 12.11, step 2

slide23

KEY:

Red bone marrow: site of lymphocyte origin

Primary lymphoid organs: site of

development of immunocompetence as

B or T cells

Red

bone marrow

Secondary lymphoid organs: site of

antigen encounter, and activation to

become effector and memory B or T cells

Immature (naive)

lymphocytes

Lymphocytes destined to become T cells

migrate (in blood) to the thymus and develop immunocompetence there. B cells develop immunocompetence in red bone marrow.

1

Thymus

Bone marrow

Immunocompetent but still naive lymphocytes leave the thymus and bone marrow. They “seed” the lymph nodes, spleen, and other lymphoid tissues, where they encounter their antigen and become activated.

2

Lymph nodes,

spleen, and other

lymphoid tissues

Antigen-activated (mature)

immunocompetent lymphocytes (effector

cells and memory cells) circulate

continuously in the bloodstream and lymph and throughout the lymphoid organs of the

body.

3

Figure 12.11, step 3

slide24

Helper T Cell

Cytotoxic T Cell

slide33

Artificially-acquired

active immunity

Passive immunity