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Geology-Earth Materials. Unit Introduction. What are Earth materials and why are they important to us?. Objective. 1 Relate atomic and molecular structure to the traits of minerals and include the major mineral groups. 2 Identify the major elements of the Earth’s crust.

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unit introduction
Unit Introduction
  • What are Earth materials and why are they important to us?
  • 1 Relate atomic and molecular structure to the traits of minerals and include the major mineral groups.
  • 2 Identify the major elements of the Earth’s crust.
  • 3 Identify common minerals and ores and their uses. Include: quartz, calcite, talc, gypsum, fluorite, feldspar, biotite, muscovite, hematite, galena, halite, pyrite, magnetite, sulfur, and graphite.
  • 4 Identify Virginia’s major rock and mineral resources and their uses.
enduring understanding
Enduring Understanding
  • Minerals are the building blocks of rocks.
earth materials
Earth Materials
  • Often the most common terms we use for the materials that make up our planet are used interchangeably. There is a difference between a “mineral” and a “rock” although we may find each in nature right next to each other. A brief review of atomic structure, elements, and compounds will help us begin this unit
atomic structure
Atomic Structure
  • Element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical processes
    • All matter is made of elements
periodic table
Periodic Table

atomic structure1
Atomic Structure
  • 92 Elements occur naturally on Earth and in stars and others have been produced only in laboratories
    • They are identified by a 1 or 2 letter symbol
atomic structure2
Atomic Structure
  • Atom is the smallest particle of the element that has all of it’s characteristics
atomic structure3
Atomic Structure
  • Atoms are made of combinations of protons (+)and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons (-) orbiting around the nucleus
    • Electrons have very little mass
atomic structure4
Atomic Structure
  • Atomic Number is the number of protons in the nucleus
atomic structure5
Atomic Structure
  • Mass Number is the number of protons and neutrons of a specific isotope
    • Isotopes have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons

Mass Number = (Number of Protons) + (Number of Neutrons

atomic structure6
Atomic Structure
  • Atomic Mass is the weighted average Mass Numbers of all the isotopes
combining elements
Combining Elements
  • Some elements are quite content to remain alone, but most will attempt to combine with other elements to form the various the common objects and substances we see every day.



Table salt

Sodium Metal

Chlorine gas

combining elements1
Combining Elements
  • Compound is a substance that is composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined.
    • Water (H2O) is a compound
combining elements2
Combining Elements
  • An element’s tendency to react with other elements depends mainly on the number of electrons in it’s outermost energy level (shell). Atoms like to have their energy levels filled and will find other atoms to combine with and either take, give up, or share electrons to do so.
combining elements3
Combining Elements
  • The energy levels go 2-8-8-32 etc
  • These are called valence electrons
combining elements4
Combining Elements
  • Elements form bonds when this electron exchange takes place
    • Covalent bonds are formed when the atoms share valence electrons
combining elements5
Combining Elements
  • Molecule is two or more atoms held together with covalent bonds; O2, H2 are common examples
combining elements6
Combining Elements
  • Ionic Bonds are formed when one or more electrons are exchanged (not shared) between atoms. When this occurs the atoms become positively or negatively charged (ions) and attract each other; NaCl is a common example
combining elements7
Combining Elements
  • NaCl is a common example
uses for earth materials
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Nearly every single thing we use today comes from Earth directly or indirectly. The following is a list of minerals and ores
uses for earth materials1
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Name of mineral/ore Use(s)

Quartz (mineral) Glass, watches

uses for earth materials2
Uses for Earth Materials

Feldspar (mineral) Toothpaste

uses for earth materials3
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Calcite (mineral) Neutralizing acids
uses for earth materials4
Uses for Earth Materials

Mica (mineral) Lampshades,

insulation, makeup

uses for earth materials5
Uses for Earth Materials

Pyrite (ore) Iron ore

uses for earth materials6
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Name of mineral/ore Use(s)

Magnetite (ore) Iron ore

uses for earth materials7
Uses for Earth Materials

Hematite (ore) Iron ore

uses for earth materials8
Uses for Earth Materials

Galena (ore) Lead

uses for earth materials9
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Graphite (ore) Lubricant
uses for earth materials10
Uses for Earth Materials

Sulfur (ore) Rubber,


uses for earth materials11
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Bauxite (ore) Aluminum
uses for earth materials12
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Coal (sedimentary) Energy
uses for earth materials13
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Name of rock Use(s)
  • Gravel/stone (all) Road


uses for earth materials14
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Limestone Concrete
uses for earth materials15
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Granite Building


uses for earth materials16
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Name of rock Use(s)

Pumice Lava soap


uses for earth materials17
Uses for Earth Materials

Quartzite Building


uses for earth materials18
Uses for Earth Materials

Slate Roofing,

pool tables

  • Read Ch 4