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BCGCA3004B. Construct Wall Framing. Wall Framing. Building Code of Australia states that. AS 1684.2 Scope. Page 9 Section 1.1. AS 1684.2 Scope. Page 9 Section 1.1. This means that this standard only applies the Residential Buildings (Class 1) or Garages & Carports (Class 10). .

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Construct Wall Framing

wall framing
Wall Framing
  • Building Code of Australia states that
as 1684 2 scope
AS 1684.2 Scope

Page 9 Section 1.1

as 1684 2 scope1
AS 1684.2 Scope

Page 9 Section 1.1

This means that this standard only applies the Residential Buildings (Class 1) or Garages & Carports (Class 10).

wall frame members
Wall Frame Members
  • Parts of a frame perform specific functions- supporting live & dead loads- resist Racking Forces- resist Overturning Forces- resist Sliding Forces- resist Uplift Forces -Most members provide a face to accept linings (this means that member sizes may be limited)

Timbers Generally Used- Radiata Pine- Oregon (Douglas Fir)- Various Hardwood Species

  • Various combinations of -timbers, -engineered wood products-materials such as steelmay be used WHY?

Galvanized Steel Strap Bracing

Engineered Timber (LVL) Lintels

Radiata Pine Studs

Structural Steel

Engineered Timber (I Beams) Deep Joists

wall frames
Wall Frames
  • Frames are classified into 2 categories
  • Load Bearing – They are structural frames, they transfer loads from roof or upper floor to the supporting floor frame. They can be either external or internal walls.
  • Non Load Bearing –- do not support any structural loads.- They support their own weight- Non structural loads doors and frame, kitchen cupboards, driers etc. - support some live loads eg Doors closing. Therefore there are some minimum requirements for these AS 1684.2 cl 6.3.5
basic frame components
Basic Frame Components

Refer page 187 TAFE Guide

frame member functions
Frame Member Functions
  • Plates
  • Horizontal members that form the top & bottom of the frame.
  • Bottom plate is usually 50mm for unseasoned timber 45mm for seasoned.
  • Top plate is usually the same section size as bottom plate.
  • For trussed roof top plates will be 75mm for unseasoned and 70mm for seasoned
  • Top plate may be made up by 2 x 38 (35)
  • Thicker top plates means that trusses or upper floor joists do not need to be placed direct over a stud
  • Vertical members placed between the plates
  • The set the wall height
  • Studs in external frames resist Wind Loads
  • Generally Stud sizes are 75mm or 100mm wide by 50mm or 38mm in unseasoned timbers and70mm or 90mm wide by 35mm or 45mm in seasoned timbers.
  • Required Stud sizes can be found in AS 1684.2 Supplements
studs continued
Studs Continued
  • Several Different types of Studs

- Common- Door & Window- Secondary Jamb Studs- Jack & Short

  • Horizontal members fixed between window studs and door studs.
  • Referred to as Sill or Head trimmers
  • Usually of the same section size bottom plates
  • Openings wider than 1800mm require trimmers as specified in AS 1684.2 cl6.3.6.6 & table 6.3
trimming studs
Trimming Studs
  • Run from Trimmers to Plates
  • Used to block out Narrow Lintel
  • Where use in conjunction with Lintel they may take structural loads
  • Must be same depth as wall frame to accept finishes
  • May also be referred to as “Jack”, “Soldier”, or “Short” studs
  • Horizontal Member cut between studs to keep them - straight- evenly spaced- prevent twisting- allows studs to carry higher load- Maximum spacing 1350mm, there walls upto 2700mm require only 1 row of noggins
  • Placed at intersections of wall frames
  • Normally 3 Blocks per intersection
  • Also referred to as a Head
  • Horizontal Load Bearing Member between Studs
  • Purpose is to transfer loads to side of openings
  • May be made of many materials- Timber- Engineered Timbers- Structural Steel or Cold Rolled Steel Sections
  • Provide lateral stability of Walls
  • Provide resistance against racking forces induced direct wind loads
  • Provide resistance to Roof loads induced onto top plates.
bracing methods
Bracing Methods

Timber Bracing – 50 to 75 mm x 19 to 25mm checked into and nailed flush into face of studs. Braces must be installed in opposing pairs in external bracing walls.

This method is virtually never used today.

Rated 0.8 kN/m

types of bracing
Types of Bracing

Perforated Metal Bracing- Installed in similar method as timber brace with a saw cut into the plates and studs.

The brace is then nailed flush onto the studs and plates.

Braces must be installed in opposing pairs in external walls.

Rated 0.8 kN/m

types of bracing2
Types of Bracing

Flat Metal or Hoop Iron Bracing

  • 19mm Wide x 0.8mm
  • Zincalume
  • Two braces are fixed in opposite directions
  • Fitted with Compression Clamps
  • Rated 1.5kN/m
types of bracing3
Types of Bracing

Sheet Bracing

  • Structural Plywood (Must be Stamped)
  • Hardboard (Masonite)
  • Fibre Cement
  • Resists Strong Wind Loads
  • Can be used on Narrow Panels – Why?
  • Usually on external walls in cavity – Why?
  • Minimum 7mm (Not Necessarily Correct)
  • Must be nailed off as per AS 1684.2
  • Plate Steel can be used in High Wind Load Areas
location of bracing
Location of Bracing
  • AS 1684 cl states
    • Bracing should be evenly distributed and be provided in both directions
    • Should be placed initially at corners
spacing of bracing walls
Spacing of Bracing Walls
  • AS 1684.2 Cl states
    • For Single Storey Building or Upper Storey of Double Storey Buildings
    • Maximum distance between bracing wall shall be 9000mm for Wind Classifications up to N2
plan prepare for wall framing
Plan & Prepare For Wall Framing
  • Stress Grading of Individual Wall Frame Members
  • Seasoned Or Unseasoned
stress grading
Stress Grading
  • Refers to the Timbers Strength
  • Timber must be able to withstand stress loads placed on them.
  • Overloading may cause straining or failure
  • 3 types of stress Compressive Tensile Shear Note Torsional Stress is not discussed
stress grading1
Stress Grading
  • Members Sizes will be determined for span tables
  • Generally for Residential Construction sizes will not be specified by designers
  • Why?
  • Architect will not want to take responsibility
  • Engineer will want to charge extra to do this and
  • Why would a client want to pay for something that he can get done for nothing
stress grading2
Stress Grading
  • Why are members generally specified on Commercial projects
  • AS 1684.2 Residential Timber Framed Construction Guide
as 1684 2 limitations
AS 1684.2 Limitations

1.4.4 The Maximum number of storey's of timber shall not exceed 2

1.4.5 The maximum width of a building shall 16 000mm, Note, if you use AS1684.2 simplified max width = 12 000mm1.4.6 The maximum wall height shall be 3000mm excluding gable ends

1.4.7 The maximum roof pitch shall be 35 degrees


Structural pine grading

A3P has announced that it will not proceed with the introduction of Structural Pine (SP) grading as previously planned.

Continuing contact with A3P members, timber merchants, truss and frame fabricators, designers and specifiers has indicated the introduction cannot be achieved without major disruption and unacceptable burden to industry.

ordering timber
Ordering Timber
  • Timber is ordered in lineal metersmay be priced in cubic meters
  • Increments of 300mm
  • Lengths over 3600mm are charged at higher rate
  • Timber should be ordered as required - avoid unnecessary exposure to weather- affecting cash flows- theft- storage
material storage
Material Storage
  • Timber should be stored on gluts
  • This allows for airflow
  • Care should be taken in stack sizes
  • Stacks can be strapped for safety
storage of materials
Storage of Materials
  • Timber should be stored as close as possible to work area
frame construction
Frame Construction
  • Plates
  • The size of plates will depend on 1. Floor Joist Spacing2. Rafter / Truss Spacing3. Stud Spacing4. Single or Double Storey5. Stress Grade of Timber6. Roof Load Width ?
  • Seasoned timbers are dressed therefore trenching not required
  • Rough Sawn Timbers such as Oregon, Hardwood require trenching.
  • Housing of plates for studs provides a constant thickness
  • Trenching keeps Top & Bottom plates parallel
  • Restrains Unseasoned Studs from twisting

Trenching usually appox 10 mm

  • Trenching depth is not critical but what is left on is.
  • Top Plates fully supported on masonary walls will be sized based on a 300mm spacing
top plates as 1684 2
Top Plates AS 1684.2
  • cl 6.3.4. states that may be a minimum of 35 mm if 1. not required to resist uplift forces (i.e trusses are nominally fixed and2. Trusses or Rafters are located directly above studs or within 1.5 times the depth of the plate from the stud.
joining of plates
Joining of Plates
  • Where plates are butt jointed they may be joined using a connector plate.
joining of plates1
Joining of Plates
  • Plates may be Scarfed or Lapped jointed.
  • Theses are time consuming and rarely used
calculate plate lengths
Calculate Plate Lengths
  • During Fabrication Top & Bottom Plates are the same length
  • Plates should be as long as possible
  • Consider manpower available to stand frames
  • Remember Top Plate must be continuous

Stud Sizes are determined by

  • Stress Grade
  • Stud Spacing
  • Rafter/ Truss spacing
  • Wall Height
  • Roof Load Width
  • AS 1684.2 tables only specify 450mm or 600mm spacing. These are the most common spacing's
stud spacing
Stud Spacing

Stud Spacing Determined by

  • Stress Grade
  • Stud Spacing
  • Rafter/ Truss spacing
  • Wall Height
  • Roof Load Width and
  • If applicable External Sheeting Joints (ie Blue Board etc)
  • Not all external sheeting require critical stud placement
  • Check with manufactures manual as to requirements
  • Generally studs should be aligned with the internal face.
  • Stud sizes are determined from tables in AS 1684.2
calculating stud length
Calculating Stud Length
  • Finished Floor to Ceiling govern stud length
  • Minimum Habitable Room is 2400mm Clear
  • Floor Finishes1. Carpet 20mm2. Timber Flooring 40mm (Depending on Batten)
  • Ceilings1. 10mm Plasterboard2. 13mm Plasterboard
calculating stud length1
Calculating Stud Length
  • Double Storey building may have FFL (Finished Floor Level).
  • Allowance must be made for structural members
  • Most Importantly Determine if there are any height restrictions
  • Type of Roof Will affect Stud Heights

Top & Bottom Plates = 90 x 45 F5

Step 1 – Determine Floor & Ceiling

Floor Carpet = 20mm

Ceiling Gyprock = 13mm

Step 2 – Calculate Stud Length

Minimum Clearance = 2400mm

Plus Flooring = 20mm

Plus Ceiling = 20mm

Wall Height = 2440mm

less Wall Plates = 90mm

Stud Length = 2350mm


Ground Fl Finish = Timber (40mm)

First Floor = Carpet (20mm)

Upper Level Joists = 200 x 50 F5

Top & Bottom Plates = 90 x 45

Step 1- Determine SFL (Structural Floor Level)

SFL First Floor = 28.950 (FFL First Fl)

-20 (Carpet)

SFL= 28.930

SFL Ground Fl = 26.200 (FFL Gnd)

- 40 (Timber)

SFL = 26.160

Step 2 – Calculate Height Difference

SFL First Floor = 28.930 –

SFL Ground Fl = 26.180

Height Difference = 2.750

Ground Floor

First Floor


Step 3 – Structural Elements

Height Diff = 2.750

Less Flooring = 0.017

Less Floor Joist = 0.200

Less T & B Plate = 0.090

Stud Length = 2.443

Ground Floor

First Floor


Carpet Both Floors (20mm) Ceilings 10mm Plasterboard (Allow 20mm)

Dimensions are clear measurements

Lower level plates Upper Level Plates

Bottom Plate = 90 x 35 F5 Bottom Plate = 90 x 45 F5

Top Plate = 90 x 45 F5 Top Plate = 90 x 70 F5

calculating door heights
Calculating Door Heights
  • On Concrete Slab
  • Using a standard 2040mm x 820mm
  • Allow 22mm for Carpet (17mm + 5mm)
  • 2040 mm Door Height
  • 2mm Clearance between Door & Jamb
  • 20mm for Jamb
  • 10mm Clearance between Jamb & Head
  • 15mm Clearance between Jamb & Lintel
  • Total = 2094mm Say 2100mm
calculation of window
Calculation of Window
  • Check with manufacturer if windows are not on site
  • Generally at same height of doors
  • Check on elevations for window heights
  • 15mm Clearance between Jamb & Lintel
  • Allow 10mm under sill
window width
Window Width
  • Care should be taken when setting out to brick bond!
    • Client may want window to line up with internal fitting
    • Client may want window dead center of room
construct wall frames
Construct Wall Frames
  • Number Wall Frames
  • Clock Wise Direction
  • Internal Walls Left to Right
  • Top To Bottom
setting out plates
Setting Out Plates
  • Confirm Dimensions of Slab/ SubfloorSelect Suitable Timber & Cut to LengthTack TogetherMark Appropriate ID Number on Plate
  • Mark Required Studs – In Following OrderEnd StudsWall Intersections
setting out plates1
Setting Out Plates
  • If required prepare a storey rod with the appropriate markings (ie Horizontal & Vertical Bond)
  • Set out position of window and doors studs remembering to allow for required jamb studs
  • If required adjust position to match brickbond
  • Set out Common Studs, Jack Studs at required spacing
preparing studs
Preparing Studs
  • Use Storey Rod (Pattern Stud) to cut required studs
  • Mark and check out window and door studs
wall frame assembly
Wall Frame Assembly

What are Advantages & Disadvantages of Prefabricated Wall Frames?