Chapter 4 Sections 1-2, p. 156-174 Lisa McWilliams, James Askew, Noah Durham
Secession: P: creating own judicial system E: creating own monetary system (money) D: trade S: copy constitution or create your own
Popular Sovereignty: P: vote to be slave state or non-slave state (Utah and New Mexico only) E: buy slaves or not buy slaves D: slave states and non-slave states won’t get along S: no more disputes for slave and non-slave states/some opposed some agreed
Underground Railroad: P: illegal to hide fugitives/runaway slaves E: people lost their “free labour” D: North vs. South/ free vs. unfree S: runaway slaves escaping to the North
Harriet Tubman: P: supported free slave act and abolition E: free labour was gone to slave owners D: S: she helped slaves escape to the North
Harriet Beecher Stowe: P: struggle of slavery between North and South E: Published a book D: Stirred up more controversy between North and South S: North loved her book “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” and increased their protests while the South took it as an attack
Dred Scott: P: owner took him to a free state then took him back to slave state/ living in a free state made him free E: eliminating slavery D: S: admitting he is not property but people
Stephen Douglas P: Ran against Lincoln in the 1858 race for U.S. senate. E: Supported Popular Sovereignty. D: He debated Lincoln over the idea of slavery. S: Supported slavery.
Abraham Lincoln P: Was a U.S. President. E: Developed the Emancipation Proclamation which led to the down fall of the confederate economy. D: Wanted to maintain the Union S:Believed slavery was Immoral.
Confederacy P: Regained political voice by creating their own country. E: Lost resources from north and relations with other nations. D: Negotiate terms of reconstruction with union. S: Supported slavery.
Jefferson Davis P: Was the President of the Confederacy. E: Davis lead an economy based on crops (cotton). D: Communication with citizens of south. S: Believed in slavery.
Fort Sumter P: Was the first battle in the civil war. E: Costs for ammunition, troops, weapons, etc. D: S: Fought for control of Union forts to better the Confederate military.
Bull Run P: First southern victory. E: Costs of supplies D: S: Showed that North couldn’t win the war easily.
Stonewall Jackson P: His leadership in Bull Run and victory lead to high moral about the war. E: D: S:
Ulysses Grant P: Union achieved their goal cutting confederate into two E: Union army general D: S: ¼ of 100,000 men who fought were killed, wounded or captured
Robert E. Lee • P: commander of the confederate army • E: September 17, 1862 was the bloodiest day in US history • D: • S: modest rather than vain in his tactics
Antietam • P: Lincoln removed McClellan from command • E: bloodiest single day battle in history • D: • S: more than 26,000 people died
Emancipation Proclamation • P: was a weapon in the war • E: Lincoln issued this on January 1, 1863 • D: • S: Neither side was completely
Conscription P: South’s economy went down. North’s went up E: African American soldiers earned lower pay in Union D: S: draft riots, most violent were in New York City
Clara Barton • P: found American Red Cross • E: women started to get more jobs • D: • S: first woman to head a US government agency. Southern women started volunteering nursing duty
Income Tax P: Congress help pay for the war E: the south grew economically D: S: tax took a percentage of everybody’s income
Gettysburg Address • Brought the nation together as a whole, helped stop the civil war.
Vicksburg • Cut the confederacy in half and allowed the union to completely take over Jackson. Also, cut more of the confederacy’s manpower.
William Tecumseh • Believed in total war just as Lee did, was careless about his losses. Many of his troops died.
Appomattox court house • The civil war came to a stop after 4 years the nation was finally a whole. The nation was getting stronger.
13th amendment • Prohibited slavery; said neither slavery not involuntary servitude, except by punishment of law, shall exist within the united states.
John Wilkes Booth • Assassinated president Lincoln, leaving many unsolved issues with the abolition of slavery and how to integrate approximately 4 million African American former slaves into national life.
Freedman’s bureau • Made friends with the former slaves and other African Americans former slaves that needed clothes, food, education, other supplies, and protection.
Radical Republicans Tried to give slaves full rights, freedom and the right to vote. Tried to also completely destroy political power of former slaveholders.
14th Amendment • Full rights of all united states citizens, gave slaves more rights. Congress overrode Andrew Jackson’s veto to the reconstruction legislation.
15th amendment • 1868 grant becomes president, radicals introduce 15th sating everyone can vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Allowed grant to win election by a margin.
Scalawags • White southerns who joined the republicans party to stop carpetbaggers from regaining power, tried to prevent war, lack of unity in the republican party.
Carpetbaggers • People from north that came to the south looking for work. Also added to lack of unity in the republican party.
Hiram revels • African Americans started having there own roles in politics. First africanamerican senators.
Sharecropping • Farmers kept some of there crops and shared the rest with the people they divided land with.
Ku Klux Klan • Tried to destroy republican party, intimidated democrats, violence to intimidate African Americans.
Economic • Gettysburg Address: • The confederates repeatedly attacked the Union, and the Union were forced to concede some territory, withering confederate onslaught.
Economic • Vicksburg: • Grant sent Benjamin Grierson and the confederate defenses to protect Vicksburg. Grant ordered 2 frontal attacks that didn’t work on April 30, the troops landed and were sent in search of confederate troops, then the Union forces sacked Jackson, the capital of the state.
Economic • William Tecumseh Sherman: • The commander of the military division of Mississippi, the Sherman March was used to create a wide path of destruction.
Economic • Appomattox Court House: • On April 3, 1865, the Union troops conquered Richmond, the confederate capital. Southerners had abandoned the city the day before, setting it afire to keep the Northerners from taking it.
Economic • 13th Amendment: • The government had to decide about the border states where slavery still existed and what to do about it. The president believed that the only solution was constitutional amendment abolishing slavery.
Economic • John Wikes Booth: • He was a southern sympathizer that was shot dead which made the country facing problems on restoring southern states to the Union and integrating 4 million freed African Americans into nation life.
Economic • Freedman’s Bureau: • Provided food, clothing, hospitals, legal protection, and education for formal slaves and poor whites.
Economic • Radical Republicans • They wanted African Americans to have full citizenship being able to make decisions on their own and the right to vote on taxes and other rights.
Economic • 14th Amendment: • Prevented states from denying rights and privileges to any U.S citizen.
Economic • 15th Amendment: • Gave everyone the right to vote.
Economic • Scalawag: • They wanted to improve their economic positions and didn’t want former wealth planters to regain power.
Economic • Carpetbagger: • The nickname showed who they were, showing how they were from the North but moved to the South after war.