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Ecosystems & Communities. Dr. Donna Howell Biology I Blacksburg High School. Chapter 4. Ecosystems. Two factors shape an ecosystem: Biotic factors – biological influences Plants, other animals, etc. Abiotic factors – nonliving influences

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ecosystems communities

Ecosystems & Communities

Dr. Donna Howell

Biology I

Blacksburg High School

Chapter 4

ecosystems
Ecosystems
  • Two factors shape an ecosystem:
    • Biotic factors – biological influences
      • Plants, other animals, etc.
    • Abiotic factors – nonliving influences
      • Climate, rainfall, wind, sunlight, etc.
habitat
Habitat
  • Together, the biotic and abiotic factors of an ecosystem determine the survival and growth of organisms and make up their habitat.
niche
Niche
  • A niche is the place an organism occupies in an ecosystem.
  • A bullfrog’s niche would be what it eats, when it reproduces, and where it lives.
community interactions
Community Interactions
  • There are three main types of community interactions:
    • Competition
    • Predation
    • Symbioses
competition
Competition
  • Competition occurs when organisms have to use the same resources, such as food.
predation
Predation
  • Predation is when one organism captures and feeds on another.
  • Lion and antelope
symbioses
Symbioses
  • Any relationship where two organisms live closely together is called a symbiosis.
  • There are 3 main types:
    • Mutualism
    • Commensalism
    • Parasitism
mutualism
Mutualism
  • Mutualism is a type of symbiosis where both species benefit.
  • Example: bees and flowers
commensalism
Commensalism
  • Commensalism is a symbiosis where one member benefits, and the other is not harmed nor does it benefit.
  • Example: barnacles on a whale
parasitism
Parasitism
  • Parasitism is a symbiosis where one organism harms the other one.
  • Example: mosquito sucking on human blood
ecological succession
Ecological Succession
  • Ecosystems are constantly changing over time.
  • The series of predictable changes that occurs over time is called ecological succession.
primary succession
Primary Succession
  • Primary succession occurs where no soil exists.
  • Example: years after a volcanic eruption covers ground with lava.
primary succession1
Primary Succession
  • The first species to populate an area after such an event is called the pioneer species.
secondary succession
Secondary Succession
  • Secondary succession happens after a disturbance, such as a wildfire.
  • The community interactions restore the ecosystem to its original condition.
biomes
Biomes
  • A biome is a complex of terrestrial communities that covers a large area.
tropical rain forest
Tropical Rain Forest
  • Hot and wet year-round.
  • Large trees with canopies.
  • Huge variety of wildlife.
  • Ex: Costa Rica
tropical dry forest
Tropical Dry Forest
  • Warm year-round, alternating wet and dry seasons.
  • Deciduous trees with canopy
  • Tigers, monkeys
  • Ex: Mexico
tropical savanna
Tropical Savanna
  • Warm; seasonal rainfalls; frequent lightning fires
  • Tall grasses
  • Lions, cheetah
  • Ex: Africa
desert
Desert
  • Hot year-round; little rainfall
  • Cacti
  • Scorpions, roadrunners
  • Middle East
temperate grassland
Temperate Grassland
  • Hot summers; cold winters; seasonal rainfall
  • Grasses
  • Bison, Prairie chickens
  • Ex: central North America
temperate woodland
Temperate Woodland
  • Hot dry summers; cool moist winters
  • Evergreen shrubs
  • Coyotes, deer
  • Ex: West coast of North America
temperate forest
Temperate Forest
  • Warm summers; cold winters; year-round rainfall
  • Deciduous trees
  • Bears, bobcats
  • Ex: Eastern US
boreal forest
Boreal Forest
  • Long cold winters, short mild summers
  • Conifers
  • Lynxes & moose
  • Ex: Washington State, US
northwestern coniferous forest
Northwestern Coniferous Forest
  • Mild temperatures, lots of precipitation
  • Redwoods and hemlocks
  • Elk, owls
  • Ex: Pacific coast of US
tundra
Tundra
  • Permafrost; long, cold winters
  • Mosses, lichens
  • Caribou, Arctic fox
  • Ex: Northern North America
aquatic ecosystems
Aquatic Ecosystems
  • In addition to land biomes, we also have aquatic biomes.
  • Freshwater, estuaries, ocean, etc
aquatic ecosystems1
Aquatic Ecosystems
  • The base of aquatic food chains are tiny free-floating creatures called plankton and zooplankton.