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The English Revolution

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  1. The English Revolution

  2. Tudor Rulers Elizabeth I Henry VIII Henry VII

  3. Tudors: • strong rulers • Good relations with Parliament • Get what they want from them

  4. Elizabeth dies 1603 No children 1603 Elizabeth

  5. New king: James I From Scotland House of Stuart

  6. From early internal fights to hold power, Elizabeth learned the importance of appearance and winning the people James cares nothing of that

  7. James believes in : Divine Right

  8. Tells Parliament “There are no privileges and immunities which can stand against a divinely appointed king” James feels that rights listed in documents like the Magna Charta are a threat to their divine prerogative

  9. James needs money for a war: *goes to Parliament *Parliament wants to talk it over *James Dissolves Parliament

  10. James against Protestant dissenters Puritans – want to purify Church James vows to drive them out or worse

  11. James is aided by William Laud the Archbishop of Canterbury

  12. Charles I takes over in 1625 Charles also believes in absolute rule

  13. Charles: *dissolves Parliament *Jails leaders *rules w/o Parliament for 11 years

  14. In order to raise money to run the government Charles must resort to questionable methods ?

  15. Charles brings back medieval law ‘ship money’, a tax on costal area to pay for the Navy – but he collects from inland regions too

  16. The Archbishop of Canterbury attempts to make religious changes in Scotland to make them more like the Church of England Scotland revolts

  17. Charles has to recall Parliament for money after Scotland revolts Long Parliament

  18. Charles attempts to have leaders of Parliament arrested – it fails Charles heads north to raise army Parliament forms the New Model Army from militia of London and country squires with business connections

  19. Supporters of king: Cavaliers

  20. Supporters of Parliament: Roundheads Oliver Cromwell

  21. Roundheads win the war and capture Charles Cromwell allows only his supporters into Parliament The Rump Parliament

  22. Pride’s Purge

  23. Parliament tries and convicts Charles I

  24. Small group of radicals takes control – they are Puritans Instrument of Government-constitution Cromwell - Lord Protector Remake society: more moral Blue Laws

  25. Cromwell not able to work with Rump Parliament so he dissolves them Rules as military dictator with a regime of generals

  26. Cromwell and the Puritans attempt to crush Catholicism in Ireland They will confiscate Catholic lands and execute priests Sets up English landlord for Irish-Catholic tenants This leaves a long hatred for England

  27. Cromwell dies 1658 People tired of Puritan living and military rule Want Stuarts back

  28. Restoration Charles II Opens theaters and taverns Party time!!!

  29. When Charles II dies his brother takes over: James II

  30. James starts suspending laws of Parliament and appointing Catholics to key positions

  31. James has two daughters with Protestant 1st wife Marries a Catholic has a son

  32. Parliament invites first daughter Mary and husband William of Orange GLORIOUS REVOLUTION James II runs away

  33. William signs English Bill of Rights *limited monarchy *supremacy of Parliament *Power of the purse *Regular meetings of 8Parliament

  34. no royal interference with the law. Though the sovereign remains the fount of justice, he or she cannot unilaterally establish new courts or act as a judge. • *no taxation by Royal Prerogative. The agreement of the parliament became necessary for the implementation of any new taxes • *freedom to petition the monarch without fear of retribution • *no standing army may be maintained during a time of peace without the consent of parliament. • *no royal interference in the freedom of the people to have arms for their own defence. • *no royal interference in the election of members of parliament • *the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament • *"grants and promises of fines or forfeitures" before conviction are void • no excessive bail or "cruel and unusual" punishments may be imposed

  35. Evolution of Constitutional Government • Political parties – outlet for differences in ideas of how to run the country • Tories-tradition & high Church • Whigs-parliament/toleration/city

  36. 2. Cabinet System New Hanover kings were Germen and relied on leaders of Parliament to run the country. Board of advisors became known as the Cabinet

  37. 3. Prime Minister-leader of the cabinet Leader of the majority party in Parliament 1st PM Robert Walpole

  38. Parliament House of Lords: titled nobles House of Commons: wealthy landowners and businessmen Few in England can vote