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Early Literacy LCD 323 Fall 2014
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  1. Early Literacy LCD 323 Fall 2014

  2. All Aspects of Oral Language Play a Role in Reading Acquisition Word Identification: Phonological Awareness Comprehension: Morphology Syntax Semantics Pragmatics

  3. Although Literacy is of National Concern, why is the area of reading relevant to Speech-Language Pathologists? Research reflects that a complex reciprocal relationship exists between spoken language and reading.

  4. What do you think? What percentage of children with language disabilities who are seen by an SLP also have reading and writing difficulties? 20%? 35%? 60%? 80%?

  5. Approximately two-thirds or 65% of the children with language disabilities seen by SLP’s also have problems with reading and writing.

  6. Some More Statistics Nearly 75% of poor readers in 2nd grade  have an early history of spoken language deficits (Catts, 1999) 65% of children at risk for reading  difficulties in kindergarten will continue to read with difficulty if they do not receive early and appropriate intervention (Torgesen et al, 2001)

  7. Overlapping Fields Field of Field of Speech- Literacy Reading Language Pathology

  8. Fragmentation of Services for Children

  9. Importance of a Unified Approach Training specialists in the areas of spoken language and reading allows for a unified approach that results in more successful development of literacy skills

  10. New and Expanded Roles of the SLP in and Literacy Prevention  Identification  Assessment  Intervention  Other Roles (advocacy,  education and collaboration) ASHA Position Paper: Roles and Responsibilities of Speech-Language Pathologists With Respect to Reading and Writing in Children and Adolescents, 2001

  11. Types of Reading Disabilities DYSLEXIA SLI/LLD Reading Comprehension Word Identification ADHD Attention Model by Carol Westby

  12. SLI/LLD Definitions SLI may be identified on the basis of late onset and  delayed development of morphosyntactic, semantic, phonological, or pragmatic skills relative to other areas of development. They are generally identified between the ages of 3 and 5 during preschool (Tager-Flusberg & Cooper, 1999, p. 1276). Students with LLD are described as possibly having  deficits in “vocabulary, morphology, syntax, and /or text-level processing . . .” (Catts and Kahmi, 1999 p. 65)

  13. Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Language Learning Disability (LLD): RED FLAGS

  14. JOEY Joey is a 5 year old Kindergartner. He follows directions given to the class; however, he always watches other kids and then copies them. He doesn’t like story time and he is usually reluctant to join in. When called on during story time, he often responds, “I don’t know.” It is difficult to determine what he understands. However, he loves drawing, playing with legosand any recess activities that are less structured. sy

  15. RED FLAGS SLI/LLD: Comprehension Difficulty understanding words assumed to be familiar  Difficulty understanding words used in a definition  Struggles with implicit learning of new vocabulary  and concepts Difficulty understanding and using time-sequencing  vocabulary words (first, then, next, last) Difficulty understanding lengthy or unfamiliar  directions and struggles to internalize classroom routines Difficulty understanding the rules of games  Difficulty following a storyline in a conversation,  book, or movie SY

  16. Jenny Jenny, a 4 ¾ year-old, takes a very long time to describe her toy during circle time. She starts with a very specific detail about her toy (e.g., Look…his leg kicks.), then gets stuck and doesn’t know what to say next. When describing yesterday’s field trip, she starts in the middle and keeps starting over. Her stories are disorganized and have many grammatical errors (e.g., What they are?). She often substitutes words such as ‘baa’ for ‘sheep’ and frequently uses um, thingie, and stuff while speaking. She often points to objects instead of naming them. SY

  17. RED FLAGS SLI/LLD: Language Formulation and Word Retrieval Needs extended time to formulate ideas (starts, stops,  restarts, etc.); stories have no beginning, middle, end Syntax and grammar errors – Mis-sequenced words in  sentences Replaces related words for intended words  Uses fillers and non-specific words (um, thing, stuff)  Difficulty giving directions or explaining a process  Points, rather than labels  Difficulty formulating questions to clarify novel  information sy

  18. SLI/LLD and Reading Disorders = Oral Written Language LD OWL LD: have oral as well as written language problems: significant problems in reading comprehension, oral reading of real words, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness and word retrieval (Berninger & Wolf, 2009)

  19. Types of Reading Disabilities DYSLEXIA SLI/LLD Reading Comprehension Word Identification ADHD Attention Model by Carol Westby

  20. What is Dyslexia?  A specific learning disability affecting reading that has a biological basis in the brain.

  21. Dyslexia Individuals with dyslexia are generally of average or above average intelligence, but their learning disability results in an unexpected gap between their potential and their performance in reading, particularly at the word level.

  22. More on Dyslexia Dyslexia is caused by differences in brain structure and/or brain functioning. It interferes with the ability to process, store, or produce information.

  23. Neurobiological Basis of Dyslexia Typical Readers Dyslexic Readers Eden et al., Neuron, 2004

  24. DYSLEXIA: International Dyslexia Association Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. —Lyon, G.R., Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B.A. (2003). A Definition of Dyslexia, Annals of Dyslexia

  25. KATIE Katie is a four and a half year old Pre-schooler. She loves to talk and seems to understand what she hears as well as or better than most of the other children in the class. She enjoys story time and is always volunteering to answer questions. However, she seems to avoid activities that involve letters and is confused by games where she must identify the beginning sound in a word, clap out syllables or come up with a word that rhymes.

  26. Red Flags for Dyslexia (Pre-school) Difficulty with rhyming and hearing  beginning sounds in words Trouble naming letters 

  27. ERIK Erik is a five and a half year old Kindergartener. He has always loved school but is beginning to complain about going. His parents note that lately he appears frustrated when they read together and will not even try to read some of the simple words they think he should know. He struggles to remember letter sounds and when he attempts to sound out words, he often says the wrong sound or cannot blend the sounds together. Every time he sees a word it seems brand new. Even words like ‘the’ and ‘dog’ which he has seen over and over again elude him.

  28. Red Flags for Dyslexia (Grades K-1) Trouble with phonemic awareness tasks (taking  apart and putting together speech sounds in words) Trouble learning and applying phonics (sounds of  letters) Difficulty remembering high frequency “sight”  words Poor spelling  Poor handwriting  International Dyslexia Association (IDA) 29

  29. What is Phonemic Awareness? Phonological Awareness Word Rhyming Syllable Phonemic Awareness Awareness Awareness

  30. Why is Phonemic Awareness Important? Phonemic awareness is directly related to the ability to learn sound/symbol correspondence and thus apply phonics to reading words. A child’s level of phonemic awareness on entering school is widely held to be the strongest predictor of the success he or she will experience learning to read. (Adams and Bruck, 1995)

  31. Developmental Milestones for Phonological Awareness Acquisition Adapted from Crumrine, 2002 Pre-school Rhyme: plays with words and nonsense words  that rhyme Syllables: implicitly segments words into  syllables as in chants and songs, claps to syllables

  32. Developmental Milestones for Phonological Awareness Acquisition Kindergarten Rhyme: recognizes, completes, and  produces rhyming words Concept of Words: identifies words in a  sentence Syllables: blends, segments, counts, and  deletes syllables Beginning Sounds: matches and isolates  beginning sounds Onset and Rime: blends /t/ + /ake/  Phonemes: (2 to 3 sounds) blends and  segments

  33. Developmental Milestones for Phonological Awareness Acquisition First grade  Syllables: deletes final syllable  Phonemes: (3 to 5 sounds) blends, segments, deletes initial or final, substitutes phonemes Second grade  Syllables: deletes middle syllable  Phonemes/Blends: (5 to 6 sounds) blends, segments, deletes or substitutes embedded phoneme in a blend

  34. What is involved in learning sight words? Recognizing letter patterns that make up whole words or parts of words automatically by sight (orthographic reading).


  36. Orthographic Processing Adams (1990)

  37. Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency (TOSWRF) Draw a line between words—3 minutes oratgetruncarisfunbluebiglikeback/ eachmuchthreezooapplefarflywould/ wayunderbirdfoundegglunchyardlive/ staygirlcakeofbutpetroomlightvery/ >>>> sullyseculargirddubcoerceguile/ epochprecludepulsearvernacularquaff/

  38. Why can you read this? Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in what oredr the ltteers in a word are, the olny ipromoetnt tihng is that the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can still raed it wouthit porbelm. This is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.

  39. What else is involved in fast and accurate reading? Rapid naming skills

  40. Rapid Letter Naming (CTOPP) s t n a k c t s c ka n c k t a n s t k c s n a t c n ka s n ck sta

  41. Assessment for Early Identification of Dyslexia and SLI Oral language comprehension and use  Emerging Literacy Skills  Phonemic awareness Print awareness/alphabet knowledge Acquisition of high frequency words Naming speed 

  42. Intervention What do SLP’s need to know about interventions for children with phonological awareness, orthographic processing and rapid automatic naming?

  43. Early intervention increases the chance that children will develop automatic and fluent reading with good comprehension.

  44. Intervention: Principles of Instruction In general, the best instruction for children with dyslexia is: Explicit  Structured and sequential  Repetitive: Opportunities for  extensive review and practice Multisensory: Involves visual,  auditory and tactile/ kinesthetic modalities -Jennings, 1999

  45. Multisensory Structured Language Approaches—Two Root Programs Orton Gillingham   Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program (LiPS)

  46. Multi-sensory Input Visual Auditory Tactile/Kinesthetic

  47. Segmentation 1. Clapping syllables (good for developing a sense of rhythm but hard for identifying number of syllables) 2. Counting (tokens, counting board, cards, etc.) 3. Use of whole body for larger segments (wrist, elbow, shoulder, head) and fingers for phonemes

  48. Segmentation (Elkonin) /t/” “/s/ /i/ “sit”

  49. Segmentation (Elkonin) /t/” “/s/ /i/ “sit”