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NANOPAPER from almond SHELL. May 8-9, Coimbra , Portugal. Eduardo Robles, Iñaki Urruzola , Jalel Labidi. Biorefinery Process Group Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering University of Basque Country Pza . Europa 1, 20018, San Sebastian, SPAIN

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nanopaper from almond shell

NANOPAPER from almond SHELL

May 8-9, Coimbra, Portugal

Eduardo Robles, IñakiUrruzola, JalelLabidi

Biorefinery Process Group

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

University of Basque Country

Pza. Europa 1, 20018, San Sebastian, SPAIN

Correspondence to: jalel.labidi@ehu.es

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COST Action FP1105 May 8-9 Coimbra, Portugal

Objectives

  • To obtain cellulose nanofibers from almond shell (Prunusdulcis) with two different methods.
  • To manufacture papers from the obtained nanofibers and to compare their mechanical properties.

Nanopaper From Almond Shell. Eduardo Robles, IñakiUrruzola, JalelLabidi.

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COST Action FP1105 May 8-9 Coimbra, Portugal

Procedure

Bleaching

NaOH + H2O2 + DTPA + MgSO4

T = 70 ºC

t = 150 min

Method 1

Ethanol/water 60/40 v/v

T = 130 ºC

t = 90 min

Hot pressing

T = 100 ºC

P = 185 bar

t = 25 min

Pretreatment

NaOH (1%) v/v alkaline solution

T = 20 ºC

t = 24 h

Hydrogel preparation

Vacuum filtering

0.45 μm nylon filter

Acetylation

HNO3 (1/3) w/w

Acetic Acid (1/20) w/w

T= boiling

t = 30 min

Method 2

NaOH 7.5% v/v

T = 60 ºC

t = 24 h

Hydrolysis

H2SO4 (8..5 mL /g)

T = 45 ºC

t = 60 min

Homogenization

40 passes

P = 800-1200 bar

Nanopaper From Almond Shell. Eduardo Robles, IñakiUrruzola, JalelLabidi.

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COST Action FP1105 May 8-9 Coimbra, Portugal

Results

Particular characteristics in the deformation of the nanofibers and the interaction between the nanofibers in each kind of nanopaper are involved in the performance of the paper under tensile stress.

When compared to data from regular micropaper, it can be seen that nanopapers definitely presented improved properties.

Stress vs Strain

Nanopaper From Almond Shell. Eduardo Robles, IñakiUrruzola, JalelLabidi.

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COST Action FP1105 May 8-9 Coimbra, Portugal

Results

The low porosity is associated with the close-packing properties of materials with high crystallinity; considering that the crystallinity of cellulose nanofibers from almond shells was around 80% for both methods, the small amount of space between fibers prevents pore formation, thus improving mechanical properties

Nanopaper From Almond Shell. Eduardo Robles, IñakiUrruzola, JalelLabidi.

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COST Action FP1105 May 8-9 Coimbra, Portugal

Conclusions

  • Chemical methods for the removal of non-cellulosic components were effective, providing pulps with high α-cellulose content, acid hydrolysis increased the crystallinity.
  • The nanopapers obtained in this study were flexible and translucent and exhibited improved mechanical properties compared to micropaper, but still not better than nanopaper made from other raw material. NaOH 7.5% represents a very effective delignification process to eliminate non-cellulosic components. The nanopaper obtained by this method presented slightly better mechanical properties than the nanopaper from organosolv.

Nanopaper From Almond Shell. Eduardo Robles, IñakiUrruzola, JalelLabidi.

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COST Action FP1105 May 8-9 Coimbra, Portugal

References

Urruzola I, Robles E, Serrano L, Labidi J, Nanopaper from almond (Prunusdulcis) Shell, Cellulose (2014) (In press)

HenrikssonM, Berglund LA, Isaksson P, Lindström T, Nishino T, Cellulose nanopaper structures of high toughness, Biomacromolecules 9 (2008) 1579–1585.

Pirayesh, H., Khazaeian, A. (2012) Using almond (Prunusamygdalus L.) shell as a bio-waste ability in Wood based composite, Composites: Part B 43 1475–1479.

Sehaqui H, Liu A, Zhou Q., Berglund L.A, Fast preparation procedure for large, flat cellulose and cellulose/inorganic nanopaper structures, Biomacromolecules 11(2010) 2195–2198.

Serrano L, Urruzola I, Nemeth D, Belafi-Bako K, Labidi J, Modified cellulose microfibrils as benzene adsorbent, Desalination 270 (2011) 143-150.

Yousefi H, Hejazi S, Mousavi M, Azusa Y, Heidari AH, Comparative study of paper and nanopaper properties prepared from bacterial cellulose nanofibers and fibers/ground cellulose nanofibers of canola straw, Industrial Crops and Products 43 (2013) 732– 737

Nanopaper From Almond Shell. Eduardo Robles, IñakiUrruzola, JalelLabidi.

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COST Action FP1105 May 8-9 Coimbra, Portugal

THANK YOU!

Author would also like to thank to CONACyT, Mexico for support provided through Scholarship 216178.

Nanopaper From Almond Shell. Eduardo Robles, IñakiUrruzola, JalelLabidi.