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Accommodations, Modifications, and Differentiating Instruction to Promote Student Independence. Presented by: Lori Dehart KEDC. Today’s Agenda R eview Terms & Concepts ` SDI/SAS Differentiated Instruction UDL Accommodations Modifications. Today’s Agenda (continued).
Discuss How to Fade Accommodations
Section 300.347 on IEP content, IDEA – There should be:
“. . . a statement of the program modifications or supports for school personnel that will be provided for the child –
Section 300.342 of IDEA also states that the IEP must be in effect at the beginning of each school year so that each teacher and provider is informed of "the specific accommodations, modifications, and supports that must be provided for the child in accordance with the IEP.”
Plan for all
Planning for individual needs
In order to participate with success in the general curriculum, students with disabilities, as appropriate, may be provided additional supports and services, such as:
The principles of UDL align with the purpose and intent of accommodations.
It does this by providing options for:
The design of the instructional materials and activities that makes the learning goal achievable by individuals with a wide difference in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember.
Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST)
Differentiated Instruction is an instructional concept that maximizes learning for ALL students—regardless of skill level or background.
Teachers might believe that, if they are using differentiated instruction or Universal Design for Learning (UDL), they do not need to provide accommodations for students with disabilities.
If instruction is required for students to benefit from a material, resource, aid, strategy or service, it should be described as specially designed instruction.
in its simplest form is “what the student needs” in order to
If the student requires specific materials, resources, aids, strategies or services to gain access to the general education curriculum, it should be described as a supplementary aid and service.
Keep in mind that many of the instructional strategies and supports suggested can be both the SDI and SAS
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)
“… the participation in such assessment of all students [Sec. 1111 (3) (C) (i)]. (The term “such assessments” refers to a set of high-quality, yearly student academic assessments.) The reasonable adaptations and accommodations for students with disabilities—as defined under Section 602(3) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act—necessary to measure the academic achievement of such students relative to state academic content and state student academic achievement standards [Sec. 1111 (3) (C) (ii)].”
Accommodations are commonly categorized in four ways:
timing and scheduling
Do not fundamentally alter or lower
expectations or standards in instructional
level, content or performance criteria.
Do fundamentally alter
or lower expectations or
standards in instructional level,
content or performance criteria.
Changes are made in order to provide equal
access to learning and equal opportunity to
demonstrate what is known.
Changes are made to provide
student meaningful &
productive learning experiences
based on individual needs &
Grading is same
Grading is different
Though educators often confuse the terms accommodations and modifications, the terms should not be used interchangeably.
For example, if a student has a certain type of visual processing difficulty, he or she may need (for some years) to use a straight edge to guide visual tracking while reading, but eventually learns to perform the actual reading task with full independence to the extent of his or her capability. At the point of testing, this student no longer has a person holding the tracking tool or reading the passage to him or her. This has become the independent responsibility of the student; yet remaining student needs for support are still being met. Independent use of the visual tracking tool has become the least intrusive accommodation for the student at this point.
Assessment accommodations do not necessarily represent the instructional end point, but they do represent a point in time that lies beyond the earliest phases of skill acquisition.
Some skill independence should be seen if instruction has been effective.
Teams must remember to carefully consider long term independence and thoughtfully design the process of fading supports when choosing and planning instructional methods.
The key IS finding the right balance of supports for a given student and actively, consistently, and constructively supporting the growth of student independence.
All range from least restrictive to most restrictive
least restrictive to most restrictive
Documenting all of the following:
Teacher Small Group
Teacher Whole Group
Peer Small Group/Cooperative Group Individual
In kindergarten, Michelle’s teacher found she needed to frequently repeat the directions for any activity as Michelle was often not listening carefully when they were first given. (input A)
The teacher also frequently paired Michelle with a diligent worker once seatwork activities began second semester. (level of support A) Sometimes Michelle did not finish her seatwork, so her teacher allowed her to take it home to complete and return the next day. (time A)
In first grade, Michelle began receiving speech/language services for articulation errors. It was also found that Michelle had minor auditory processing difficulties. Her therapist decided to pre-teach some concepts that would be introduced on the following day, hoping that this would improve her listening skills.
Michelle was purposefully placed next to students with excellent attending skills, as she tended to be quite “chatty” during seatwork.
(level of support A)
Sometimes Michelle’s teacher had her come to the front of the room to hold the pointer during large group lessons as this appeared to aid in focusing on the key parts of the lesson, rather than distracting to extraneous details around her. (participation A)
Michelle was noticeably slower than her peers in finishing any written assignment, so her teacher often sent homework to finish and return so Michelle would not miss recess or other fun activities, trying to finish assignments. (time A)
In second grade, Michelle’s reading decoding skills were not up to her peers. Adult classroom volunteers often worked with her to reinforce previous skills (flash card drill, extra oral reading time with adult corrections and quizzes: who, what, where, when). (level of support A )
and (input A )
Due to her slow acquisition of phonics, Michelle’s teacher decided to reduce the number of spelling words she would study each week from 15 to 10, although the words Michelle learned were the same as her peers.
In math, Michelle often grasped the concepts readily, so her teacher had her complete less worksheets before taking a test to demonstrate mastery of the concept. (Quantity A)
This bought some extra time, her teacher explained, for Michelle to practice her handwriting with additional worksheets, as she still took an extraordinarily long time producing letter formations. (Quantity A)
The pre-teaching begun in first grade continued for new concepts, and was believed to be helping Michelle. (Input A)
By the end of third grade, Michelle was evaluated for special education services as a student with a learning disability and found to be eligible in written language. Her math skills were found to be well above her peers, while her reading skills were found to be at 2.1 grade level. All previous accommodations were found to be helpful and were incorporated into her IEP. Additionally, Michelle was now to be taught keyboarding, and allowed to produce most written work at the keyboard due to her poor fine motor skills. This often required her to take work home to produce on a home computer. Her teacher also decided that…
…Michelle’s work group (3 students) would produce a play to illustrate concepts learned in a social studies lesson, rather than a written product. (Other groups wrote reports, constructed a diorama, and produced a video skit). Although this was an acceptable alternative, her teacher decided to list this accommodation on Michelle’s IEP so future teachers would be aware of this need.
Her accommodations were listed as:
Reading seatwork time: level of support
Math seatwork time: quantity
Large group work, where new concepts are introduced: input
Written language tasks: output
Social Studies report: output
By sixth grade, Michelle was participating in an after-school homework club where adult volunteers helped her to plan task approach for long assignments, and helped her to complete most work with one on one assistance.
(level of support A) (input A) (difficult A or B depending on whether Michelle was completing the tasks fundamentally herself or whether the adult was essentially doing the work)
Her teacher found pre-teaching no longer as helpful for Michelle, and speech language services were no longer found necessary by her IEP team. Graphic organizers were extensively used by this teacher, and found to be quite helpful for Michelle. (input A)
Michelle’s IEP team found the reading level of the texts well beyond her skill, despite extensive continued remediation for reading difficulties. Michelle’s teacher decided to try text-on-tape and text-on-CD with Michelle, as she grasped the concepts better this way than reading the text alone.
She also found that choral-responding techniques, every-pupil response techniques(participation A) allowed Michelle, and her classmates, to focus better during whole group instruction. Her teacher also began PALS teams for social studies and science text reading, and found higher achievement and time on task outcomes. (input A)
(level of support A) and (participation A)
In eighth grade, Michelle was found to be unable to complete written tests on concepts very well. Orally, she knew the material, but somehow in the writing task, even with keyboard responses allowed, she was unable to demonstrate mastery in concept-laden work. Her teachers agreed to try oral testing in the RSP classroom, although this often meant her testing could not occur until later that day due to scheduling constraints. To their astonishment, Michelle’s motivation and achievement skyrocketed!
(level of support A) and (input A)
and (output A) and (time A)
By September of tenth grade, unfortunately Michelle had now begun to associate with known gang members, and her counselor became concerned. Although she still maintained some earlier friendships, she did not “seem to be the same child any more,” her parents stated. Parent conferences occurred, and it was agreed that counseling would be a good idea for Michelle. A referral to a local clinic was made at parent request. During those sessions, her counselor became aware of low self-esteem issues related to her incomplete understanding of her learning profile. (Although depression was suspected, after several sessions, Michelle’s counselor decided this did not apply.)
Demystification sessions about her learning profile were conducted, and Michelle and her counselor decided to approach the school staff to discuss the feasibility of a school-wide program, such as the Learning Strengths Seminars.
Family therapy sessions were conducted, and Michelle has discontinued her association with gang-involved youth. Michelle is interested in getting a job, she stated. Her family and other IEP team members will be meeting to develop a transition plan soon.