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PowerPoint presentation to accompany Besterfield Quality Control, 8e. Quality Control. Chapter 12- Management and Planning Tools. Some Problems (Challenges) !. Undergraduate Unemployment Improve customer experience in a restaurant topics for research/project

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powerpoint presentation to accompany besterfield quality control 8e
PowerPoint presentation to accompany


Quality Control, 8e

Quality Control

Chapter 12- Management and Planning Tools

some problems challenges
Some Problems (Challenges) !
  • Undergraduate Unemployment
  • Improve customer experience in a restaurant
  • topics for research/project
  • expending/relocation business entity
  • improve customer experience driving a car
  • improving health care system
  • What are the consequences of children watching violent television shows and playing violent video games?
  • ISO Implementation in an organzation
the basic seven q c tools
The Basic Seven Q.C. Tools?
  • Flow Charts
  • Run Charts
  • Histograms
  • Pareto Diagrams
  • Cause and Effect Diagrams
  • Scatter Diagrams
  • Control Charts
relation between new q c tools and basic seven tools
Relation Between New Q.C. Tools and Basic Seven Tools



Numerical Data

Verbal Data

Define problem after

collecting numerical data

Define problem before

collecting numerical data

The Basic Tools

The New Tools

  • Analytical approach
  • Generate Ideas
  • Formulate plans



benefits of incorporating q c tools
Benefits of Incorporating Q.C. Tools

Enhanced Capabilities

  • Organize verbal data
  • Generate ideas
  • Improve planning
  • Eliminate errors and omissions
  • Explain problems intelligibly
  • Secure full cooperation
  • Persuade powerfully
benefits of incorporating q c tools1
Benefits of Incorporating Q.C. Tools
  • Assess situations from various angles
  • Clarify the desired situation
  • Prioritize tasks effectively
  • Proceed systematically
  • Anticipate future events
  • Change proactively
  • Get things right the first time
benefits of incorporating q c tools2
Benefits of Incorporating Q.C. Tools

Five Objectives of Organizational Reform

which will establish a Culture that:

  • Identifies problems
  • Gives importance to planning
  • Stresses the importance of the process
  • Prioritizes tasks
  • Encourages everyone to think systematically
benefits of incorporating q c tools3
Benefits of Incorporating Q.C. Tools

Unstructured Problem [must be put into solvable form]

The Seven New Tools

Problem is mapped

Problem becomes

obvious to all

Thoughts are

easily organized

Plans are

easily laid

Problem becomes

obvious to all

People understand


Problem can be

clearly articulated

Nothing is


Nub of problem

is identified

Things go well


are on target

Cooperation is


Problem is in solvable form

Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

why why
Why, Why
  • Key to finding the root cause of a problem by focusing on the process rather than on people.
  • Describes the problem in specific terms and then ask “why”.
  • This tool is very beneficial in developing critical thinking.
  • It is frequently a quick method of solving problems.
management and planning tools
Management and Planning Tools
  • These tools are particularly useful in structuring unstructured ideas, making strategic plans, organizing and controlling large and complex projects.
  • These tools are very effective for teams and, in some cases, for individuals.
management and planning tools1
Management and Planning Tools
  • Subjective information.
  • Applications of these tools has been proven useful in process improvement, cost reduction, policy deployment, and new-product development.

85% of poor quality is a result of poor work processes, not of staff doing a bad job

  • Processes often “go wrong” at the point of the “handoff”
  • Attend to improving the overall process, not just one part—some of the most complex processes are the result of creating a “work around”
  • Force Field Analysis
  • Nominal Group Technique
  • Affinity Diagram
  • Interrelationship Diagram
  • Tree Diagram
  • Matrix Diagram
  • Prioritization Matrices
  • Process Decision Program Chart
  • Activity Network Diagram
learning objectives
Learning Objectives

When you complete this chapter, you should:

Be able to describe the why, why, forced field, and nominal group techniques.

Know how to develop and utilize the following tools:

Affinity Diagram

Interrelationship Diagram

Tree Diagram

Matrix Diagram

learning objectives cont d
Learning Objectives-cont’d.

When you complete this chapter, you should:

Know how to develop and utilize the following tools cont’d.:

Process Decision Program Chart

Activity Network Diagram

Prioritization Matrices

forced field analysis
Forced Field Analysis
  • Identifies the forces and factors that may influence the problem or goal.
  • Helps an organization to better understand promoting or driving and restraining or inhibiting forces so that the positives can be reinforced and the negatives reduced or eliminated.
forced field analysis1
Forced Field Analysis


  • Define the objective.
  • Determine criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the improvement action.
  • Brainstorm the forces that promote and inhibit achieving the goal.
forced field analysis2
Forced Field Analysis

Steps cont’d.:

  • Prioritize the forces from greatest to least.
  • Take action to strengthen the promoting forces and weaken the inhibiting forces.
forced field analysis3
Forced Field Analysis


  • Determine the positives and negatives of a situation.
  • Encourage people to agree and prioritize the competing forces.
  • Identify the root causes.

What is a force-field analysis?

Force-field analysis is a problem-solving tool that is used to identify the reasons (“forces”) that support two positions to a question and the strength of each force. For example, force-field analysis could be sued by a team to answer the question, “Should ABC Inc. establish an office in Singapore?”

3. Following the rules of brainstorming, have the team provide as many reasons as possible for each of the responses. As with any brainstorming session, no answer should be ignored and no critique is permitted during the brainstorming session. After this session, the team’s force field might look like the following chart:

Adapted from Practicing Organization Development


Should ABC establish an office in Singapore?

The facilitator will then do a quick scan of the group and count the participants’ responses. This number is then written on the chart. See sample chart on the following page.


Once the team can provide no new information to the brainstorming session, the items provided should be reviewed for clarification, duplication, and so on. Items should be reworded, if necessary, for clarification.

  • The next step is to identify how strong a force each item is. There are many ways to do this. One simple way is to treat each item with a five-point Likert scale. The facilitator may handle this process in the following manner:
      • “if you believe that the statement I read is a very strong argument for establishing an office in Singapore, hold up five fingers. If you believe that is a very weak argument for the position, hold up only one finger. How strong an argument do you think ‘High demand’ is?”

Exhibit 6-5: Conducting a Force-Field Analysis(continued)

6. Items that are perceived to be low in interest should be eliminated from the chart. In the sample chart above, items with a 1 or 2 would be removed. See sample chart below.

Should ABC establish an office in Singapore?

7. Given the arguments that remain, participants would try to decide the question.

nominal group technique
Nominal Group Technique

Provides the issues/ideas input from everyone on the team and for effective decisions.

nominal group technique1
Nominal Group Technique


  • Everyone writes on a piece of paper the situation they think is most important.
  • The papers are collected, and all situations are listed on a flip chart.
  • Rank the situations (using another paper). Give numerical values 1…
  • Points for each problem are totaled and the item with the highest number of points is considered to be the most important.




Idea Generation




example of ngt
Example of NGT

The faculty at X-University is concerned that the students are not getting internships and jobs. A team is created involving faculty, students, and recruiters. The goal is to identify the cause of this problem. After this NGT process, the faculty will create an action plan based on the outcome.

example of ngt1
Example of NGT

Statement of Problem:

Why aren’t students getting internships and job offers?


Individual idea generation:

The job market is slow.

Poor interview skills.

They’re not networking.

Not enough recruiters come.

Their resumes are weak.

Students are unwilling to relocate.

Students are unprepared.

No internships prevents them from getting jobs later on.

The career fair is not productive.

Everyone wants to stay in-state.


Is the career fair not productive because there are too many people or too few? Can we re-word that to say, “There aren’t job opportunities through the career fair?”

Should we combine “unwillingness to relocate” with “students wanting to stay in-state?”

What do you mean by “poor interview skills?” Does that include lack of training?



1. Unwilling to re-locate

2. Poor interview skills

3. Weak resumes

4. Career fair doesn’t offer very many job opportunities

5. Students aren’t networking.

6. Not enough recruiters.

7. Bad job market

List of ideas

Individual rankings

Combined points

affinity diagram
Affinity Diagram

A tool for organizing a large number of ideas, opinions, and facts relating to a broad problem or subject area.

affinity diagram1
Affinity Diagram


  • State the issue in a full sentence.
  • Brainstorm using short sentences on

self-adhesive notes.

  • Post them for the team to see.
  • Sort ideas into logical groups.
  • Create concise descriptive headings for each group.


Affinity Statement

Affinity Statement

Affinity Statement

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Affinity Statement

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

  • Innovative product features
interrelationship diagram
Interrelationship Diagram
  • Identifies and explores causal relationships among related concepts or ideas.
  • It allows the team to classify the cause-and-effect relationships among all factors so that the key drivers and outcomes can be used to solve the problem.
interrelationship diagram1
Interrelationship Diagram


  • The team should agree on the issue or problem statement.
  • All of the ideas or issues from other techniques or from brainstorming should be laid out.
  • Start with the first issue.
  • The second iteration is to compare other issues.
interrelationship diagram2
Interrelationship Diagram

Steps cont’d.:

  • The entire diagram should be reviewed and revised where necessary.
  • The diagram is completed by tallying the incoming and outgoing arrows and placing this information below the box.

No cause effect relationship

A weak cause effect relationship

A strong cause effect relationship

interrelationship diagram3
Interrelationship Diagram


  • Allows the team to identify root causes from subjective data.
  • Systematically explores cause-and-effect relationships.
  • Encourages members to think multidirectionally.
  • Develops team harmony and effectiveness.
tree diagram
Tree Diagram

Maps out the paths and tasks necessary to complete a specific project or reach a specified goal.

tree diagram1
Tree Diagram


  • Choose an action-oriented objective statement from the interrelationship diagram, affinity diagram, brainstorming, team mission statement.
  • Using brainstorming, choose the major headings.
  • Generate the next level by analyzing the major headings. Repeat this question at each level.
tree diagram2
Tree Diagram


  • Encourages team members to think creatively.
  • Makes large projects manageable.
  • Generates a problem-solving atmosphere.

Tree Diagram Example Cont.

Key Strategic Factor



matrix diagram
Matrix Diagram
  • Display relationships between ideas, activities or other dimensions in such a way as to provide logical connecting points between each item.
  • Data are presented in table form and can be objective or subjective, which can be given symbols with or without numerical values.
  • Identified in 1988 book, Management for Quality Improvement by Shigeru Mizuno
matrix diagram1
Matrix Diagram


  • Select the factors affecting a successful plan.
  • Select the appropriate format (depend on the number of variables).
  • Determine the relationship symbols.
matrix diagram2
Matrix Diagram


  • Encourage the team to think in terms of relationship, their strength, and any pattern.

Matrix Diagram Exercise

A restaurant manager wants to improve customer’s dining experience!


Matrix Diagram Exercise cont.

How would you fill in the matrix?

prioritization matrices
Prioritization Matrices
  • Prioritizes issues, tasks, characteristics, based on weighted criteria using a combination of tree and matrix diagram techniques.
  • Once prioritized, effective decision can be made.
  • Prioritization matrices are designed to reduce the team’s options rationally before implementation planning occurs.
prioritization matrices1
Prioritization Matrices


  • Construct an L-Shaped matrix combining the options, which are the lowest-level of detail of the tree diagram with the criteria.
  • Determine the implementation criteria using the nominal group technique (NGT) or any other technique that will satisfactorily weight the criteria.
prioritization matrices2
Prioritization Matrices

Steps cont’d.:

  • Prioritize the criteria using the NGT. Each team member weights the criteria so the total weight equals 1, and the results are totaled for the entire team.
  • Rank order the options in terms of importance by each criterion, average the results, and round to the nearest whole number.
prioritization matrices3
Prioritization Matrices

Steps cont’d.:

  • Compute the option importance score under each criterion by multiplying the rank by the criteria weight.

-- refer to handout 1

process decision program chart
Process Decision Program Chart
  • The PDPC avoids surprises and identifies possible countermeasures.
  • PDPC is a method for mapping out every conceivable event and contingency that can occur when moving from a problem statement to possible solutions.
process decision program chart1
Process Decision Program Chart


  • The team state the objective.
  • That activity is followed by the first level.
  • In some cases a second level of detailed activities may be used.
  • The team brainstorms to determine what could go wrong with the conference, and these are shown as the “what-if” level.
process decision program chart2
Process Decision Program Chart

Steps cont’d.:

  • The countermeasures are brainstormed and placed in a balloon in the last level.
  • The last step is to evaluate the countermeasures and select the optimal ones by placing an O underneath. Place an X under those that are rejected.
activity network diagram
Activity Network Diagram
  • Program evaluation and review technique (PERT).
  • Critical path method (CPM).
  • Arrow diagram.
  • Activity on node (AON).
  • The diagram shows completion times, simultaneous tasks, and critical activity path.
activity network diagram1
Activity Network Diagram


  • The team brainstorms or documents all the task to complete a project.
  • The first task is located and placed on the extreme left of a large view work surface.
  • Any tasks that can be done simultaneously are placed below.
activity network diagram2
Activity Network Diagram

Steps cont’d.:

  • Repeat steps 2 and 3 until all tasks are placed in their correct sequence.
  • Number each task and draw connecting arrows.
  • Determine the critical path by completing the four remaining boxes in each task.
recommendations to use q c tools
Recommendations to Use Q.C. Tools

Mental Attitudes

- Keen awareness to the actual problem

- Eagerness to solve problem

- Be highly motivated for the challenge

Four Specific Keys

  • Understand the problem
  • Select the right tool for the job
  • Obtain appropriate verbal data
  • Interpret analytical results
recommendations to use q c tools1
Recommendations to Use Q.C. Tools
  • Understand the problem

Stage 1 - problem is unclear and not obvious

what exact issue should be addressed

Stage 2 - problem is obvious, but causes unknown

explore causes and single out valid ones

Stage 3 - problem and causes are known

required action is unknown

strategies and plan must be developed

recommendations to use q c tools2
Recommendations to Use Q.C. Tools
  • Selecting Right tool for the Job

Stage 1 - Collect verbal information on events

(Affinity Diagram)

Stage 2 - Choose tool to identify causes

(Relations Diagram / Matrix Diagram)

Stage 3 - List strategies and activities

(Tree Diagram / Relations Diagram)

Plan actual activities

(Arrow Diagram / PDPC Chart)


Recommendations to Use Q.C. Tools

  • Obtaining appropriate verbal data

Three types of verbal data:

- Facts; factual observations expressed in words

- Opinions; factual information colored by opinion

- Ideas; New concepts created by analyzing facts

.Group Discussions:

- Ensures common understanding

- All data should be without bias or distortion

- Data should fit objective of the analysis

recommendations to use q c tools3
Recommendations to Use Q.C. Tools
  • Interpreting Analytical Results

Information must be obtained for accomplishing

objectives from:

- Completed diagrams; or

- Process of completing diagrams

Analyze actual information obtained:

- Prepare summarized report with findings,

conclusions, and processes used

- Check if necessary data has been obtained, if not

- Discover the cause and take appropriate action

  • The roles of
  • Suppliers
  • Customers
  • Efficiency
  • Effectiveness
  • Service Industry Innovativeness
  • Value-added services and its benefits to the customers
  • Management tools to manufacture a product
  • Small group (< 5)
  • Big group