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Scientific Reading and Writing in English Results Shu-ying Wang, Ph.D. PowerPoint Presentation
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Scientific Reading and Writing in English Results Shu-ying Wang, Ph.D.

Scientific Reading and Writing in English Results Shu-ying Wang, Ph.D.

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Scientific Reading and Writing in English Results Shu-ying Wang, Ph.D.

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  1. Scientific Reading and Writing in English Results Shu-ying Wang, Ph.D. Dept. Microbiology and Immunology Tel: +886-6-2353535 ext. 5634 Fax: +886-6-2082705 Email : sswang23@mail.ncku.edu.tw

  2. Results. In the Results section, include the rationale or design of the experiments as well as the results; reserve extensive interpretation of the results for the Discussion section. Present the results as concisely as possible in one of the following: text, table(s), or figure(s). Data in tables (e.g., cpm of radioactivity). Illustrations (particularly photomicrographs and electron micrographs) should be limited to those that are absolutely necessary to show the experimental findings. Number figures and tables in the order in which they are cited in the text, and be sure to cite all figures and tables. There are 4 components in the Results section; (1) why you did it (2) how/what you did it, (3) results, and (4) brief summary or conclusion.

  3. An example paragraph: Egr-1 functions to increase HSV-1 replication in both human and mouse cells. To determine the function of Egr-1 in HSV-1 replication,we knocked down Egr-1 protein expression in SK-N-SH cells using an antisense oligomer previously shown to effectively reduce Egr-1 protein expression to a basal level (20, 21). The resulting cells were infected with strain KOS and then harvested for titration. The mean viral titers in the SK-N-SH cells treated with the Egr-1 antisense oligomer were lower than those treated with a control (scramble) oligomer from 12 through 48 hours p.i., with a significant difference at 36 hours p.i. (Figure 2A; P = 0.05, Student’s t test) by 10-fold. 4 components: (1) why you did it, (2) how you did it, (3) results, and (4) brief conclusion A

  4. In addition, we cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Egr-1+/+ and Egr-1–/– mice, infected the cells with strain KOS, and harvested infected cultures for titration. The mean viral titers in the embryonic fibroblasts from Egr-1–/– mice were lower than those from Egr-1+/+ mice from 12 through 48 hours p.i., with a significant difference at 24 hours p.i. (Figure 2B; P = 0.03, Student’s t test) by 7-fold. We also examined the growth of strain KOS in the brain slices prepared from Egr-1+/+ and Egr-1–/– mice. Figure 2C shows that the mean viral titer in the brain slices from Egr-1–/– mice was significantly lower than that from Egr-1+/+ mice with a significant difference at 24 hours p.i. (P = 0.03, Student’s t test) by 5-fold. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the Egr-1-mediated increase of HSV-1 replication is not a phenomenon specific to human or mouse cells or to a particular cell type. B C

  5. Now, authors use subtitles to organize the “Results” section. • Examples: • HSV-1 infection induces Egr-1 expression in both human cells and mouse tissue. • The functions of Egr-1 in HSV-1 replication. • A sentence or a term is used. • Present or past tense is used for a sentence.

  6. In each section (under a subtitle), we describe • why we did it (briefly in half to 1 sentence without repeating “Introduction”) • What/how we did it (in half to 1 sentence, unless novel methods, without repeating “ Materials and Methods”) • what was the results (in detailed) • what was the conclusion (in half to 1 sentence)

  7. Remember • To arrange figures and tables in the order in which they are cited in the text • To mention numbers (values) • To mention statistics • To use past tense mostly • To be consistence in description (tones) • Not to have too many tables and figures • Not to have too lengthy “Results”

  8. Consistence in description (tones) • HSV-1 infection induces Egr-1 expression in both human cells and mouse tissue. • Egr-1 functions to increase HSV-1 replication in both human and mouse cells. • Egr-1 activates the productive cycle gene promoters of HSV-1 by binding to its corresponding sequences in the promoters. • Egr-1 increases the viral loads in tissues and mortality of infected mice. • The viral loads in tissues and mortality of wild-type mice were increased. • 5. Knockdown of Egr-1 expression by a DNA-based enzyme reduces the viral loads in tissues and mortality of infected mice. • The viral loads in tissues and mortality of infected mice was reduced after knockdown of Egr-1 expression by a DNA-based enzyme. • Tones are different between black and red sentences.

  9. Homework: Practice to write your own “Results” section

  10. 24 patients were assigned to receive radiotherapy and 30 to receive a combination of radio- and chemotherapy. Twenty-four patients were assigned to receive radiotherapy and 30 to receive a combination of radio- and chemotherapy. A total of 24 and 30patients were assigned to receive radiotherapy and a combination of radio- and chemotherapy, respectively.

  11. 60% of the enrolled subjects continued their participation until the end of the study. Sixty percent of the enrolled subjects continued their participation until the end of the study. Of the enrolled subjects, 60% continued their participation until the end of the study.

  12. Fifty milligrams of the purified protein were mixed with 100ml of the solvent. Fifty milligrams of the purified protein was mixed with 100 ml of the solvent. Twenty milliliters of blood was drawn from the affected and unaffected (control) individuals.

  13. Approximately 60.0, 14.3, and 16.7% patients in Group A, B, and C, respectively, showed significant improvement. Approximately 60.0%, 14.3%, and 16.7% patients in Group A, B, and C, respectively, showed significant improvement. The Group III received Atgam 15mg/kg at day 0 and began OKT3 at the day 1. Group III received Atgam 15 mg/kg on day 0 and began OKT3 on day 1.