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Stationary Fuel Cells: Power Generation Applications for Industry and Government Tom Militello, Executive Director FuelCellSouth Partners Forum, Inc. Southeastern Air & Waste Management Association Conference. FuelCellSouth Partners Forum, Inc. Mission

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slide1

Stationary Fuel Cells: Power Generation

Applications for Industry and Government

Tom Militello, Executive Director

FuelCellSouth Partners Forum, Inc.

Southeastern Air & Waste Management Association Conference

Sea Palms Resort

slide2

FuelCellSouth Partners Forum, Inc.

Mission

Fostering Awareness and Creating Market Opportunities for Fuel Cell Industry Growth

  • Programs
  • - Southeastern Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Conference
  • - Crystal Flame Innovation Awards
  • - Quarterly Partners Forums
  • Webcasts and Newsletters
  • Business and Economic Development

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background
Background
  • FuelCellSouth was officially founded in May 2003, starting with South Carolina companies, researchers and entrepreneurs.
  • In 2004 we added participation from Georgia and North Carolina; held our inaugural FuelCellSouth Conference.
  • From 2005-2007 we have broadened our reach by:
    • Organizing as a 501 (c) (6) non-profit corporation
    • Expanding to serve twelve (12) Southeastern States
    • Launching Quarterly FCS Partners Forums
    • Offering a bimonthly newsletter
    • Conducting FuelCellSouth Seminars
    • Researching Opportunities for Sponsored Demonstration Programs
  • In 2008 – 2010 we will grow to include representation and events in Texas, Oklahoma, Missouri, West Virginia, Maryland and Delaware.

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the chemistry
The Chemistry

Regional

End User Markets

e-

e-

State & Federal

Support

Industry

Support

H+

H+

Research

National and

Regional

Special Interest

Groups

H+

H+

* FuelCellSouth

Partners Forum

*A catalyst like FuelCellSouth is needed to make the reactions go!

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industrial research advisory
Industrial / Research Advisory*

Swagelok

BellSouth

Oak Ridge National Lab

U.S. Department of Energy

LOGAN Energy

Plug Power

Fuel Cell Energy

Clemson ICAR

NC State College of Textiles

MPT

University of South Carolina

Showa Denko Carbon

Finnish Chemicals

Savannah River National Lab

Columbian Chemicals

Sequentus

Fuji

Center for Hydrogen Research

Concurrent Technologies Corp.

NSF Center for Fuel Cell Research

North Carolina Advanced Vehicle Research Center

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slide6

Targeted Industries

  • Oil & Chemical
  • Utilities – Electrical, Gas, Telephony, Water
  • Manufacturing
  • Healthcare
  • Hospitality / Hotels
  • Education (Public & Private)
  • Government

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slide7
Researches Region for Special Projects of Interest

Advise Executive Committee on Projects & Funding.

Develops, Delivers and Manages Programs / Projects

Supports and Participates in National / International Conferences and Market Education Events.

Develops and Delivers Quarterly FuelCellSouth Partners Forums and Annual Conference.

Process, Programs & Project Teams

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slide8

Fuel Cell Basics

  • Fuel Cell Basics
  • The Chemistry
  • The Components
  • Fuel Cell Technologies
  • Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)
  • Molten Carbonate (MCFC)
  • Phosphoric Acid (PAFC)
  • Solid Oxide (SOFC)
  • Direct Methanol (DMFC)

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the chemistry1
Anode: H2 = 2H+ + 2e-

Cathode: O2 (Air) + 2H+ + 2e- = H2O

Electric

Circuit

e-

e-

Anode

(negative side)

Cathode

(positive side)

Electrode

H2

H+

O2

H+

H+

H+

Catalyst

H2O

The Chemistry

*A catalyst like Platinum is needed to make the reactions go!

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fuel cell technologies
Fuel Cell Technologies
  • Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)
  • Molten Carbonate (MCFC)
  • Phosphoric Acid (PAFC)
  • Solid Oxide (SOFC)
  • Direct Methanol (DMFC)

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pem fuel cells
Named for their electrolyte

Proton Exchange Membrane

Like a battery, but supplied with external fuel

Generally use hydrogen from a reformer converting:

Natural Gas, Propane or Methanol

Products are:

DC Power

Heat

Water

Power: 1 to 100 kW

PEM Fuel Cells

Idatech PEM

Fuel Cell Stack

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molten carbonate fuel cells mcfc
Named for their electrolyte

Molten alkali carbonate mixture

(Molten carbonate salt that becomes a liquid and a good ionic conductor.)

Operate at a temperature of about 650 degrees Centigrade.

Produces heat and water vapor

Fuel is typically Reformed Natural Gas

Utilized for Large-scale power generation (> 250 to 2,000 kW)

Heat

Water

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC)

Photo Credit: American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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phosphoric acid fuel cell pafc
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC)
  • Named for their electrolyte
    • phosphoric acid
  • Able to reform methane or industrial waste gases to a hydrogen rich gas with the waste heat from the fuel cell stack.
  • Heat may be used for heating or hot water.
  • Scale – a few kilowatts to several megawatts.

Photo Credit: HydroGEN LLC

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solid oxide fuel cell sofc
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)
  • Uses yttria-stabalized zirconia as its electrolyte.
    • Runs at a temperature of around 1000 degrees centigrade.
  • Three Designs for SOFCs
    • Tubular, Planar and Monolithic
  • Produces heat for use in cogeneration applications or steam turbines to produce electricity.
  • Fuel Sources:
    • Pure Hydrogen
    • Methane
    • Carbon Monoxide

Photo Courtesy of Siemens Westinghouse.

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slide15

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC)

  • Based on Solid Polymer Technology that uses methanol directly as the fuel.
  • Benefits –reduces the need for storage or generation of hydrogen.
  • Prototype products exist, but research and development is still early stage.

Toshiba 100 milliwatts

embedded DMFC

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types of fuel cells
Types of Fuel Cells

Portable

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types of fuel cells1
Types of Fuel Cells

Transportable

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types of fuel cells2
Types of Fuel Cells

Stationary

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types of fuel cells3
Types of Fuel Cells

Transportation

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slide20

2005

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slide21

Fuel Cell Implementations:Backup & Distributed Power Solutions

Commercial Power

Residential / Small Business

Source: Ballard Fuel Cell Power

Plug Power, Inc.

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what is distributed generation
What is Distributed Generation?

Distributed generation is a concept where smaller, highly efficient power plants are installed along the existing grid, close to the end-user customer. It is similar in concept to the move from large central computers to desktop computers on a network.

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why is distributed generation occurring
Why is Distributed Generation Occurring?
  • There are localized shortages of electricity in this country, particularly in California and the Northeast. The ability to quickly build power plants to provide needed power is attractive.
  • It is getting increasingly difficult to site new power plants near population centers due to air quality concerns.
  • Deregulation is opening up new markets and new players on those markets, all of whom are looking for tools that will make them as competitive as possible.
  • National Security

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distributed generation in the southeast
Distributed Generation in the Southeast?
  • Electricity in the Southeast is relatively inexpensive, but recognized as being less clean then alternative energy sources. Distributed Fuel Cells are one potential source for clean power, but not cost competitive today with fossil fuel plants.
  • Today, renewable energy implementations are relatively few in the Southeast, but do exist… utilizing landfills and reciprocating engines… participating in the Green Power Program.

e.g. Santee Cooper - Horry County Landfill

Anderson County Landfill

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distributed generation in the southeast1
Distributed Generation in the Southeast?
  • We need more reliable power alternatives for business and mission critical environments. Power security and inclement weather (ice, wind, thunder & lightning, etc.) present economic and security threats to our region.
  • The Southeast has many feed stocks for biomass and large-scale wastewater management facilities upon which to leverage for green power. These environments present opportunities for research, demonstration, public awareness and ultimately lower cost implementations.

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distributed generation fuel cell economics
Distributed GenerationFuel Cell Economics

US DoE, EPA, DoD,

State and Private Programs

Economics Work in High

Energy Cost Regions…

e.g. Northeast, California,

Arizona, Japan, etc.

Source: Fuel Cell Energy, Inc.

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power generation
Power Generation

South Carolina Power Sources

Source: Green Power Alliance

The Southeast is predominately a nuclear / fossil fuel powered region – our power is relatively inexpensive…

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power economics local situational analysis
Power EconomicsLocalSituational Analysis

Note: Data obtained from the Energy Information Administration and Platts' POWERdat database

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emissions criteria
Emissions Criteria

Pounds of emissions per 1,000 kW hours of NOx, CO, Sox, Hydrocarbons, Particulates

Average US Fossil Fuel Plant 24.09

Micro-turbine 1.2

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine 0.6

Fuel Cell (Molten Carbonate/DFC) 0.04

Source: http://www.eere.energy.gov/

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national security
National Security
  • Growing Concern about Power Security
    • Reliability of National Grid (Blackouts)
    • Vulnerability of National and Regional Grid, in particular Generation and Transmission Facilities.
  • Business Operations are vulnerable to power availability fluctuations due to weather and local load factors.
    • Not just a big business concern anymore… an “Internet connected society” needs reliable power… in the home, in the office – 7 x 24.

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distributed generation scenarios
Distributed Generation Scenarios

End-User

  • Remote Generation (on or off grid)
  • Export to System Side (sell the excess power back to the utility)
  • Backup Generation (replacement of diesel generators)

System Side

  • Energy and Capacity (e.g. green power program)
  • Ancillary Services (in support of distributed generation)
  • Local Reliability Generation Services (in mission critical areas, e.g. hospitals).

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end user scenarios remote generation
End User Scenarios – Remote Generation

On Grid - Residential

  • Generate power locally and feed back unused power to the local utility.
  • Feed Stock: Natural Gas
  • Contains an on-board reformer

Utility Company Requirements

  • Must not compromise system reliability.
    • Create or extend an outage.
    • Decrease the life of or damage equipment.
    • Reduce reliability to other customers.
  • Must not shift costs to other customers.
  • Safety concerns
    • Back feed onto the grid.

5 kW Unit with combined Heat and Power

  • Single Phase 110/208 VAC
  • 22,000 BtuH 135 Deg F

Source: Logan Energy

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on grid commercial
On Grid - Commercial
  • Generate power locally and feed back unused power to the local utility.
  • Scale: 250 to 2,000 kW
  • Heat Utilized for HAVC.
  • Feed Stock: Natural Gas, Methane (no onboard reformer required).

250-kilowatt MCFC fuel cell power plant

Higher fuel efficiency than micro-turbines, turbines, reciprocating engines and low temp fuel cells.

Source: FuelCell Energy, Inc.

Sea Palms Resort

slide34

Source: FuelCell Energy, Inc.

Note: similar models could apply for future Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

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sample direct fuel cell implementations
Sample Direct Fuel Cell Implementations
  • Coast Guard
  • University
  • City Municipal Power
  • Manufacturing
  • Hotel
  • Hospital
  • Wastewater Treatment Facility

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typical project goals
Typical Project Goals
  • Grid Independence
  • Environmentally Friendlier Power
  • High Quality Power
  • Reliable Emergency Power
  • Cost Effectiveness

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sample funding sources
Sample Funding Sources

Mass. Coast Guard Implementation

  • Sponsor Programs (1.07 million)
  • DOE program (250K)
  • State Technology Fund (406K)
  • Partner Energy Company ($100K)
  • Total Contract $1.83 million

Source: Mass Coast Guard.

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budget
Budget

Mass. Coast Guard Implementation

Cost Breakdown

  • Fuel Cell $1,250 K
  • Heat Recovery Unit $150K
  • Engineering / Project Management $143K
  • Site Preparation $100K
  • Installation / Start-up $66K
  • Interconnect $60K
  • Modifications $66K (Mod. Rate: 4%)

Source: Mass Coast Guard.

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slide39

Utility Company Interface

  • Typical Requirements
  • Single line diagram
  • Load flow study
  • Loss of phase protection
  • Loss of power sequencing
  • Certification protocol
  • Testing protocol
  • Determine the appropriate utility interface
    • Customer representative
    • Distribution engineer
    • Substation engineer
  • Involve them in the project from the beginning
  • The utility focus will be on safety, reliability and cost allocation

Commercial and Residential Implementations Alike

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project scope
Project Scope

Mass. Coast Guard Implementation

  • Engineering & Design
  • Design Review
  • Final Design
  • Site Preparation (slab, piping, etc)
  • Fuel Cell Configured, Tested and Delivered
  • Installation & Start Up
  • Acceptance Test
  • Fuel Cell Online

60 days

2 days

15 days

30 days

15 days

10 days

15 days

2 days

149 days

Note: a program delay set back the project almost ½ year… expect

the unexpected to occur.

Source: Mass Coast Guard.

Sea Palms Resort

or city of westerville ohio
or City of Westerville, Ohio
  • "The 250-kilowatt (kW) DFC power plant creates the hydrogen it needs from a readily available fuel, natural gas. The unit is manufactured by FuelCell Energy and distributed by Caterpillar through its dealer Ohio Cat.
  • The fuel cell power plant is located at Westerville's electric substation #2, and will produce enough energy to power approximately 180 homes in Westerville.

Sea Palms Resort

commercial installations
Commercial Installations

Food Processing Plant

Yale University

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hotel and hospitality business
Hotel and Hospitality Business

Starwood began using fuel-cell energy in 2003 at its Parsippany and Edison, N.J., properties,

They have cut about 5% from the hotels' energy costs.

The DFC300A uses natural gas that is supplied by New Jersey Natural Gas of Wall, N.J. H.T. Lyons, a PPL subsidiary based in Allentown, Pa., was responsible for the installation.The New Jersey Clean Energy Program provided $860,000 in funding to PPL as part of its incentive program to encourage the use of clean and efficient technology.

Other Sites:

Starwood NYC

Sheraton San Diego

4 x 250 kW power plant

1,044 Rooms

Sheraton Hotel – Edison NJ

Sea Palms Resort

wastewater treatment facilities
Wastewater Treatment Facilities
  • Industrial and municipal wastewater treatment facilities with anaerobic gas digesters present an important opportunity.
  • The methane generated from the anaerobic gas digestion process is used as fuel for the fuel cell power plants, which in turn generates the electricity to operate wastewater treatment equipment at the facility.
  • Wastewater treatment gas is a renewable fuel eligible for government incentive funding for project installations throughout the world.
  • There are over 550 municipal wastewater treatment facilities in the U.S. that are capable of producing enough methane from anaerobic gas digestion to fuel a 250-kilowatt or larger fuel cell power plant.

Sea Palms Resort

fuelcell energy dfc 1500 power plant
FuelCell Energy DFC 1500 Power Plant
  • Using digester gas from King County's South Treatment Plant in Renton, Wash., the Company's DFC1500 power plant provides one megawatt of electricity for the wastewater treatment facility, enough to power 1,000 households.
  • The electricity generated by the Direct FuelCell (DFC) power plant is used to run some of the treatment plant equipment and the waste heat is used to produce hot water for the treatment facility.

Sea Palms Resort

molten carbonate fuel cell wastewater treatment application
Molten Carbonate Fuel CellWastewater Treatment Application

Site: Renton, WA ( King County Wastewater Treatment Facility)

Project Cost: $22 million, with $12.5 million provided in the form of a grant from the US EPA.

Two (2) Year Demonstration

Project; 5 years from concept to

Go live (including DOE bid)

Fuel: digester gas

Solution:On Grid

Power Generation:1 MW

Air Blower

& Oxidizer

Methane

Conditioning

Electrical Enclosure

Fuel Cell Module

Heat Recovery

And Stack

Source: FuelCell Energy, Inc.

Sea Palms Resort

obstacles to adoption
Obstacles to Adoption
  • Low volume production results in high initial capital equipment costs.
  • Interconnection standards, exit / stand-by charges, net metering.
  • No clear correlation between spot market natural gas prices and grid-delivered electricity rates, making business unfavorable for distributed generation.
  • Rate definition process can cause delays or lags in fuel price impact on utility rates.
  • Government incentive programs can be overly complex.

Public and industry awareness of

reduced emissions unrecognized…

… understanding of risk mitiga-

tion from on-grid dependency

and overall power security risks

not understood or quantified.

Sea Palms Resort

slide49
Questions

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slide50

Contact Us

Phone / Fax: 888.481.8433

info@fuelcellsouth.org

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slide51

Sample Exercise

Offered at FuelCellSouth Seminars

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slide52
On or Off Grid Solution?

Remote power generation

CNG / Natural Gas or

Bio-renewable Gas / Methane

Generate power locally as needed in your Mtn. Home

Account for Safety and Operational concerns

Remote Management

Exercise - Plan, Install and Manage an Off-Grid Solution

Mountain Home

  • Single Phase 110/208 VAC/GP/GI
  • 22,000 BtuH 135 Deg F

Gas Meter

Natural Gas Line

Thermal Loop

Fuel

Cell

HWH

Water Line

Equipment

Room

120 Volts

Main

Power

Panel

Foundation

Data Logger

Drain

Phone Line

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slide53

Economic Analysis

Source: Logan Energy

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exercise install a residential pemfc solution
Exercise - install a residential PEMFC solution

Fuel: Natural Gas - Fuel cell will require a ¾” Natural Gas supply line. Delivery pressure same as typical home appliance.

Water - Fuel cell will require a ¼” water supply line. A water treatment panel will be installed inside the residence or business, and the installer will run an additional ¼” line to each fuel cell from this water treatment panel.

Drain - The unit produces a small amount of condensate. This condensate will drip from a ¼” diameter plastic hose. The condensate can drain to the ground or a nearby sanitary line.

Electric - Fuel cell must be connected to an existing 120/240V electric panel. This is where the fuel cell will import power into the residence or business. A 1-1/2” conduit must be run from the fuel cell to the panel. This conduit will carry grid-sensing and power conductors. An FC disconnect is installed near the unit which serves to isolate the fuel cell for service or in the event of a power outage.

Heating System - For a Combined Heat and Power Configuration (CHP), a separate CHP heating loop will be needed. This loop is typically a 1-1/4” insulated copper line that will circulate a water-glycol mixture to and from the fuel cells. This loop is called the CHP loop. It will carry heat from the fuel cell to a water storage tank that will be located inside the residence or business. The tank is similar to a residential hot water heater and will supplement your existing hot water heater or boiler.

Phone Line - A dedicated analog phone line will be required to allow the fuel cell to relay data to the manufacturer.

Foundation - Fuel cell can sit on any stable and level surface. A concrete pad is optimum, but a concrete paver, asphalt, or gravel base is acceptable.

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solution
Solution

Small Scale PEM : RFC Single Line with CHP Detailed Diagram

Data Logger Ambient Temp Sensor

Gas Meter

Natural Gas Line

Data Logger Wires

Btu Meter

Thermal Loop

Fuel

Cell

HWH

DI with Heat Trace

Equipment

Room

DI Panel

Meter

120 Volts

Line

Main Panel

Critical Load Panel

Critical Load

DPDT

Switch

Data Logger

Data Logger Wires

Phone Line

24V Control Wires to Relay Panel

Control conduit

DI Solenoid Wires

* Diagram courtesy of Logan Energy

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