Elections. (Congress). Single Member Districts: House State-Wide: Senate (2 per state) Plurality. Type of Election. Primary General. President and Congress. Mid-term election. House Senate. Congress only. Safe vs. Open. Seats/districts. Primary Elections. Closed. Blanket. Open.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Elections (Congress) • Single Member Districts: House • State-Wide: Senate (2 per state) • Plurality
Type of Election Primary General President and Congress Mid-term election House Senate Congress only Safe vs. Open Seats/districts
Primary Elections Closed Blanket Open Caucus
Factors affecting election outcomes Incumbency Advantage • 90% in the House win re-election • 80% in the Senate win re-election • Permanent Congress? • Term limits? Why?
Advantages of the Incumbent Franking privilege Name recognition And staff Donations/ War chest Gerrymandering Service to district (committee work) Case work Pork barrel
Path To The Presidency 1. Declare Iowa 2.Primary and caucuses Jan 3 New Hampshire Jan 10 Proportional V Winner take all Utah last primary June 26
Presidential Primaries Jan. 3: Iowa caucuses Jan. 10: New Hampshire primary Jan. 21: South Carolina primary Jan. 31: Florida primary Feb. 4: Nevada caucuses; Maine caucuses begin Feb. 7: Colorado, Minnesota caucuses; Missouri primary* Feb. 28: Arizona, Michigan primaries March 3: Washington State caucuses March 6: Super Tuesday — Primaries or caucuses in Alaska, Georgia, Idaho, Massachusetts, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia. Wyoming caucuses begin. March 10: Kansas caucuses March 13: Alabama, Mississippi primaries; Hawaii caucuses March 17: Missouri caucuses March 20: Illinois primary March 24: Louisiana primary April 3: District of Columbia, Maryland, Wisconsin primaries April 24: Connecticut, Delaware, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island primaries May 8: Indiana, North Carolina, West Virginia primaries May 15: Nebraska, Oregon primaries May 22: Arkansas, Kentucky primaries May 29: Texas primary June 5: California, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, South Dakota primaries June 26: Utah primary *Non-binding primary; Missouri delegates chosen at March 17 caucuses.Source: USA TODAY reporting Front loading
3. National Convention I accept! Delegates are counted And nominee officially selected V.P Balances the Ticket Party Platform Reconcile and unify
Analysis of System Pros Allows for participation Representative Weeds out weaker Candidates
Cons Low turnout 30% More Activists involved Overrepresentation of wealthy Frontloading
4. Electoral College Indirect election Each state: Reps + Senators 538 total electors Focus on Swing states 270 to win! Election Day: People vote, Candidate that Wins popular vote Wins electors of That state Winner take all
Criticisms • Can be elected w/only a plurality, rather than majority • Possibility of minority president: (1824, 1876, 1888, 2000) • Possibility of faithless electors • Small states proportionally overrepresented • Small states ridiculously overrepresented if goes to House • Inhibits development of 3rd Parties Alternatives • Direct Elections • District system • Proportional system
The need for money Campaigns more expensive Travel Advertising-t.v. Signs Consultants
Campaign Finance Terms Hard Money Soft Money Electioneering PAC Committee set up by corp, labor union, or interest group: Raises and spends money for political reasons • Must have 50 volunteer members • Give to at least 5 federal candidates • Register with govtfollow guidelines Independent Expenditure
Campaign Finance Reform Trying to stop big money from swaying elections Federal Election Campaign Acts, 1971-1974 • Federal Elections Commission: Enforce • Must disclose amounts over $100.00 • Matching funds program: must qualify (President only) • Hard money limit: $1000.00 per individual • PAC hard money limit: $5000.00 • No Foreign contributions • Corps and UnionsPACs Loopholes?
Buckley v. Valeo (1976) Challenged FECA Where you get your money • Upheld limits on campaign contributions • Court struck down limits on campaign spending • Can spend as much on your own campaign—free speech • Limits ok for federal subsidy (matching funds) If you can raise it in small Amounts, you can spend it All!
McCain/Feingold Bi-Partisan Campaign Reform Act (Soft money and independent expenditure ads became a problem) • Bans soft money (unlimited) to national political parties (committees) by corps and unions. • Limits use of state soft money (party building activities) • Doubles hard money limits set from FECA • Restricted independent expenditures: 60 day & 30 day restrictions Newspaper, radio, tv stations exempt McConnell v FEC
Citizens United • Struck down part of BCRA: • 30/60 day limitations • Corporations are people • Corps and unions may give money directly to super pacs • Independent expenditures: • Free speech • 30/60 day restrictions are unconstitutional • Unlimited donations allowed to Super Pacs
Buckley v. Valeo 1976 BCRA: McCain/Feingold 2002 FECA 1971-1974 Created to stop soft money abuse Huge increase in unlimited soft money contributions! • Current status: • Increase in independent expenditures/527’s • Citizens United • Super PACs • Starting to replace 527s • Created FEC • Disclose contributions>$100.00 • No foreign contributions • Individual: $1000.00 limit to candidate • 20K to national party committee, 5K to a PAC • PAC’s 5K/candidate • Matching funds program • Challenged it violated 1stAmend (speech) • Upheld limits • Free to spend as much on own campaign • Money is speech • Banned unlimited soft money contributions to national parties • Unions and Corps prohibited from any soft money donations • Doubled hard money limits • 60-30 day restriction on electioneering (Issue advocacy ads/mention Candiate) If Unions and Corporations are banned from any soft money donations, how are they able to spend money in campaigns?
Effects of Campaign Finance Regulation No matching funds for Congress--> increases incumbency advantage No limitations on independent expenditures 527 Free Speech Super PACs Growth of PAC’s Corporations Issue advocacy ads
Effects of Campaign finance reform Minor Presidential Candidates Campaigns more expensive More money to incumbents Parties weakened
Interest Groups Political factions & Fed # 10 Reasons for growth • Government policies • Diversity of population • Weakness of parties • Pluralist theory
Types Labor unions Agricultural Business Professional Traditional/economic
Justice and Equality Goal: to protest the status of its members and to convince govt. to take action Brown v. Board
Public/Consumer Interest PIRGs Goal: to bring about good policy for society as a whole Common Cause Unsafe at Any Speed
Ideological Goal: to convince govt. to implement policies that are consistent with their philosophy
Tactics of interest groups Boycotting Lobby (Grass-roots) Mass media campaign contributions Litigation amicus curiae Impact candidates
Reasons for joining Individual v. Group Material benefits Purposive benefits Solidary benefits (free rider problem)
Lobbying Attempting to influence government: Most effective on narrow, technical issues that are not well publicized. Why? How to regulate interest groups? Functions of lobbyists Provide information Influence govt. Testify at hearings Help write legislation
PAC's • Fundraising Arm of Interest group: • Raise funds for favored candidates Growth: 6004100 Business PAC’s Corporations: 50% Professional associations: 15% Ideological organizations: 25% Labor unions: 10% Overrepresentation of upper classes Why?
PAC Strategies Give more to incumbents Similar philosophy Those who grant access Important members Independent expenditures
Dangers of PAC's Ethical? Further incumbency advantage More expensive campaigns Over and underrepresentation
In defense of PAC's Means of Participation Linkage Institution Helps less wealthy candidates
Rise of Political Parties Critical Re-alignment Historical development • 1796-1824:Era of good feelings • 1828-1856: 1st Dem Era: Jackson • 1860-1892: 1st Rep Era: Civil War • 1896-1928: 2nd Rep Era: East/West • 1932-1964: 2nd Dem Era: New Deal • 1968-present: Divided Govt. Era Remember Fed #10?
Era of Divided Government 1968- present …Office of president controlled by one party with Congress controlled by the opposing party. Republican dominance of the presidency Era of de-alignment Split ticket voting
Reasons Republicans dominated... electronic media professional consultants computerized mailings Democrats: McGovern-Fraser Raised more $
Functions of Political Parties Nominate candidates (more candidate centered) Win Elections! Loyal opposition Inform public--> platform Raise and spend campaign funds Unify diverse interests Register voters Linkage institution
Party Weaknesses (Effects of dealignment) Lack strong rank and file membership Anyone can join No duties or dues Emphasis on election time Increased numbers of “Independents” Not responsive to social reform Lost many traditional functions
Decentralized Organization Nat’l Convention National Committee State Committees Local Committees No real power over state or local parties
Third Parties Types • Issue oriented: Free Soil, Prohibition • Centered around strong personality • Doctrinal: apply philosophy to a variety of issues
Contributions of third parties Raise issues that other parties must address Can sway the election Populist Party-->direct election of Senators Voice of fringe elements Provides safety valve
Effects of third parties Rarely win elections Influence outcome of presidential elections 1992 2000
Obstacles to third parties Why we have a two party system! Two-party tradition Money *Single member, plurality system *Electoral College's winner take all Media coverage Exclusion from t.v. debates
Party Reform Progressive Era • Direct Primary elections • 17th Amendment: Senators • Initiative, referendum, and recall
Other Factors that have weakened the parties Candidate centered Mass media Consultants-->replace many party functions Public disenchantment Growth in interest groups
Mass Media Newspapers Magazines Network TV. Cable News Talk Radio Internet
Do Media Influence public opinion? No Yes • Mass public pays little attention to news • Selective attention • Selective perception • Other political socialization agents • Help set national agenda • Rise of adversarial journalism • Journalists more liberal • Focus on profit People less informed • Personalize candidates