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Elections - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Elections. (Congress). Single Member Districts: House State-Wide: Senate (2 per state) Plurality. Type of Election. Primary General. President and Congress. Mid-term election. House Senate. Congress only. Safe vs. Open. Seats/districts. Primary Elections. Closed. Blanket. Open.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Elections

(Congress)

  • Single Member Districts: House
  • State-Wide: Senate (2 per state)
  • Plurality
slide2

Type of Election

Primary

General

President and Congress

Mid-term election

House

Senate

Congress only

Safe vs. Open

Seats/districts

slide3

Primary Elections

Closed

Blanket

Open

Caucus

slide4

Factors affecting election outcomes

Incumbency

Advantage

  • 90% in the House win re-election
  • 80% in the Senate win re-election
  • Permanent Congress?
  • Term limits?

Why?

slide5

Advantages of the Incumbent

Franking privilege

Name recognition

And staff

Donations/

War chest

Gerrymandering

Service to district

(committee work)

Case work

Pork barrel

slide6

Path To The Presidency

1. Declare

Iowa

2.Primary and

caucuses

Jan 3

New Hampshire

Jan 10

Proportional

V

Winner take all

Utah last primary

June 26

slide7

Presidential Primaries

Jan. 3: Iowa caucuses

Jan. 10: New Hampshire primary

Jan. 21: South Carolina primary

Jan. 31: Florida primary

Feb. 4: Nevada caucuses; Maine caucuses begin

Feb. 7: Colorado, Minnesota caucuses; Missouri primary*

Feb. 28: Arizona, Michigan primaries

March 3: Washington State caucuses

March 6: Super Tuesday — Primaries or caucuses in Alaska, Georgia, Idaho, Massachusetts, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia. Wyoming caucuses begin.

March 10: Kansas caucuses

March 13: Alabama, Mississippi primaries; Hawaii caucuses

March 17: Missouri caucuses

March 20: Illinois primary

March 24: Louisiana primary

April 3: District of Columbia, Maryland, Wisconsin primaries

April 24: Connecticut, Delaware, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island primaries

May 8: Indiana, North Carolina, West Virginia primaries

May 15: Nebraska, Oregon primaries

May 22: Arkansas, Kentucky primaries

May 29: Texas primary

June 5: California, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, South Dakota primaries

June 26: Utah primary

*Non-binding primary; Missouri delegates chosen at March 17 caucuses.Source: USA TODAY reporting

Front loading

slide8

3. National Convention

I accept!

Delegates are counted

And nominee

officially selected

V.P

Balances

the Ticket

Party Platform

Reconcile and unify

slide9

Analysis of System

Pros

Allows for

participation

Representative

Weeds out weaker

Candidates

slide10

Cons

Low

turnout

30%

More Activists involved

Overrepresentation

of wealthy

Frontloading

slide11

4. Electoral College

Indirect election

Each state:

Reps + Senators

538 total electors

Focus on

Swing states

270 to win!

Election Day:

People vote,

Candidate that

Wins popular vote

Wins electors of

That state

Winner take all

slide12

Criticisms

  • Can be elected w/only a plurality, rather than majority
  • Possibility of minority president: (1824, 1876, 1888, 2000)
  • Possibility of faithless electors
  • Small states proportionally overrepresented
  • Small states ridiculously overrepresented if goes to House
  • Inhibits development of 3rd Parties

Alternatives

  • Direct Elections
  • District system
  • Proportional system
slide13

Would you prefer the Electoral College method of selecting a president over a direct national election? Why or why not?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

slide14

The need for money

Campaigns more expensive

Travel

Advertising-t.v.

Signs

Consultants

slide15

Campaign Finance Terms

Hard Money

Soft Money

Electioneering

PAC

Committee set up by corp, labor union, or interest group: Raises and spends money for political reasons

  • Must have 50 volunteer members
  • Give to at least 5 federal candidates
  • Register with govtfollow guidelines

Independent

Expenditure

slide16

Campaign Finance Reform

Trying to stop big money from swaying elections

Federal Election Campaign Acts, 1971-1974

  • Federal Elections Commission: Enforce
  • Must disclose amounts over $100.00
  • Matching funds program: must qualify (President only)
  • Hard money limit: $1000.00 per individual
  • PAC hard money limit: $5000.00
  • No Foreign contributions
  • Corps and UnionsPACs

Loopholes?

slide17

Buckley v. Valeo (1976)

Challenged FECA

Where you get your money

  • Upheld limits on campaign contributions
  • Court struck down limits on campaign spending
  • Can spend as much on your own campaign—free speech
  • Limits ok for federal subsidy (matching funds)

If you can raise it in small

Amounts, you can spend it

All!

slide18

McCain/Feingold

Bi-Partisan Campaign Reform Act

(Soft money and independent expenditure ads became a problem)

  • Bans soft money (unlimited) to national political parties (committees) by corps and unions.
  • Limits use of state soft money (party building activities)
  • Doubles hard money limits set from FECA
  • Restricted independent expenditures: 60 day & 30 day restrictions

Newspaper, radio,

tv stations exempt

McConnell v FEC

slide19

Citizens United

  • Struck down part of BCRA:
  • 30/60 day limitations
  • Corporations are people
  • Corps and unions may give money directly to super pacs
  • Independent expenditures:
  • Free speech
  • 30/60 day restrictions are unconstitutional
  • Unlimited donations allowed to Super Pacs
slide20

Buckley v. Valeo

1976

BCRA: McCain/Feingold

2002

FECA 1971-1974

Created to stop soft money abuse

Huge increase in unlimited soft money contributions!

  • Current status:
  • Increase in independent expenditures/527’s
  • Citizens United
  • Super PACs
  • Starting to replace 527s
  • Created FEC
  • Disclose contributions>$100.00
  • No foreign contributions
  • Individual: $1000.00 limit to candidate
  • 20K to national party committee, 5K to a PAC
  • PAC’s 5K/candidate
  • Matching funds program
  • Challenged it violated 1stAmend (speech)
  • Upheld limits
  • Free to spend as much on own campaign
  • Money is speech
  • Banned unlimited soft money contributions to national parties
  • Unions and Corps prohibited from any soft money donations
  • Doubled hard money limits
  • 60-30 day restriction on electioneering (Issue advocacy ads/mention Candiate)

If Unions and Corporations are banned from any soft money donations, how are they able to spend money in campaigns?

slide21

Effects of Campaign Finance Regulation

No matching funds for Congress-->

increases incumbency advantage

No limitations on independent

expenditures

527

Free Speech

Super

PACs

Growth of PAC’s

Corporations

Issue advocacy ads

slide22

Effects of Campaign finance reform

Minor Presidential Candidates

Campaigns more

expensive

More money to incumbents

Parties weakened

slide23

Do you favor campaign finance laws that restrict how much people can give to a candidate or political party? Why or why not?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

slide24

Interest Groups

Political factions &

Fed # 10

Reasons for growth

  • Government policies
  • Diversity of population
  • Weakness of parties
  • Pluralist theory
slide25

Types

Labor unions

Agricultural

Business

Professional

Traditional/economic

slide26

Justice and Equality

Goal: to protest the status of its members and to convince govt. to take action

Brown v. Board

slide27

Single

Issue

slide28

Public/Consumer

Interest

PIRGs

Goal: to bring about good policy for society as a whole

Common Cause

Unsafe at Any Speed

slide29

Ideological

Goal: to convince govt. to implement policies that are consistent with their philosophy

slide30

Tactics of interest groups

Boycotting

Lobby

(Grass-roots)

Mass media

campaign contributions

Litigation

amicus curiae

Impact candidates

slide31

Reasons for joining

Individual v.

Group

Material benefits

Purposive benefits

Solidary benefits

(free rider problem)

slide32

Lobbying

Attempting to influence government:

Most effective on narrow, technical issues that are not well publicized. Why?

How to regulate interest groups?

Functions of lobbyists

Provide information

Influence govt.

Testify at hearings

Help write legislation

slide33

PAC's

  • Fundraising Arm of Interest group:
  • Raise funds for favored candidates

Growth: 6004100 Business PAC’s

Corporations: 50%

Professional associations: 15%

Ideological organizations: 25%

Labor unions: 10%

Overrepresentation of upper classes

Why?

slide34

PAC Strategies

Give more to incumbents

Similar philosophy

Those who grant access

Important members

Independent expenditures

slide35

Dangers of PAC's

Ethical?

Further incumbency advantage

More expensive campaigns

Over and underrepresentation

slide36

In defense of PAC's

Means of Participation

Linkage Institution

Helps less wealthy

candidates

slide37

Rise of Political Parties

Critical

Re-alignment

Historical development

  • 1796-1824:Era of good feelings
  • 1828-1856: 1st Dem Era: Jackson
  • 1860-1892: 1st Rep Era: Civil War
  • 1896-1928: 2nd Rep Era: East/West
  • 1932-1964: 2nd Dem Era: New Deal
  • 1968-present: Divided Govt. Era

Remember Fed #10?

slide38

Era of Divided Government

1968-

present

…Office of president controlled by one party with Congress controlled by the opposing party.

Republican dominance of the presidency

Era of

de-alignment

Split ticket

voting

slide39

Reasons Republicans dominated...

electronic media

professional

consultants

computerized mailings

Democrats:

McGovern-Fraser

Raised more $

slide40

Functions of Political Parties

Nominate candidates

(more candidate centered)

Win Elections!

Loyal opposition

Inform public--> platform

Raise and spend campaign funds

Unify diverse interests

Register voters

Linkage institution

slide41

Party Weaknesses

(Effects of dealignment)

Lack strong rank and file membership

Anyone can join

No duties or dues

Emphasis on election time

Increased numbers of “Independents”

Not responsive to social reform

Lost many traditional functions

slide42

Decentralized Organization

Nat’l Convention National Committee State Committees Local Committees

No real power over state or local parties

slide43

Third Parties

Types

  • Issue oriented: Free Soil, Prohibition
  • Centered around strong personality
  • Doctrinal: apply philosophy to a variety of issues
slide44

Contributions of third parties

Raise issues that other

parties must address

Can sway the election

Populist Party-->direct election of Senators

Voice of fringe elements

Provides safety valve

slide45

Effects of third parties

Rarely win elections

Influence outcome of presidential elections

1992

2000

slide46

Obstacles to third parties

Why we have a two party system!

Two-party tradition

Money

*Single member, plurality system

*Electoral College's winner take all

Media coverage

Exclusion from t.v. debates

slide47

Party Reform

Progressive Era

  • Direct Primary elections
  • 17th Amendment: Senators
  • Initiative, referendum, and recall
slide48

Other Factors that have weakened the parties

Candidate centered

Mass media

Consultants-->replace many party functions

Public disenchantment

Growth in interest groups

slide49

Mass Media

Newspapers

Magazines

Network

TV.

Cable News

Talk Radio

Internet

slide50

Do Media Influence public opinion?

No

Yes

  • Mass public pays little attention to news
  • Selective attention
  • Selective perception
  • Other political socialization agents
  • Help set national agenda
  • Rise of adversarial journalism
  • Journalists more liberal
  • Focus on profit  People less informed
  • Personalize candidates
slide51

Impact on Politics

Gatekeeper  National Agenda

Scorekeeper

Watchdog

Higher costs

More candidate centered

slide52

More Candidate Centered

(Weakening influence on political parties)

Focus on background of candidate

Focus on image

Talk shows and debates

Focus on mistakes candidate makes

Sound bites

Convention coverage

Focus on scandals

slide53

Candidates/president use of Media

Sound Bites

Positive ads

Photo Ops

T.V. Debates

Spin control

Staged events

Negative Commercials

Internet

Leak information