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2.3 Vrij, maar achtergesteld. Reconstructie . Na de burgeroorlog 1861-1865 Reconstructie 1865-1877 → Poging om het zuiden te laten aanpassen aan einde slavernij en gelijkberechtiging. BV: 14 e amendement: Zwarten krijgen Amerikaanse burgerrechten

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  • Na de burgeroorlog 1861-1865
  • Reconstructie 1865-1877

→ Poging om het zuiden te laten aanpassen aan einde slavernij en gelijkberechtiging



  • 14e amendement: Zwarten krijgen Amerikaanse burgerrechten
  • 15e amendement: Stemrecht voor de zwarte bevolking

MAAR: vrouwen nog steeds geen stemrecht!


MAAR: Zuiden weigert 14e amendement

→ Federale troepen en bestuurders nemen bestuur zuidelijke staten over

Leidt tot blijvend verzet van blanke, zuiderse bevolking


Bv: Oprichting KuKluxKlan

  • Verhinderen dat zwarten gebruik kunnen maken van hun rechten
  • Angst verspreiden en later ook gebruik van geweld

1877: Noordelijke Staten geven Reconstructie op

  • Zuidelijke Staten opnieuw bestuurd door tegenstander gelijkheid
  • Na 1877: Rassenscheiding
  • Zwarten in principe zelfde rechten maar niet in realiteit
  • Vastgelegd in de ‘Jim Crow’-wetten
  • Noorden grijpt niet in uit angst kiezers te verliezen


  • Gescheiden treincoupés, scholen, parken,…
  • Geen gemengde huwelijken, arbeid,…
  • Weren zwarte bevolking bij verkiezingen


  • Duizenden zwarten gelyncht (en blanken

niet veroordeeld)

  • Geraken moeilijk aan werk

→ Blijven werken op plantages(sharecroppers)

weinig verzet
Weinig verzet
  • Booker T. Washington
  • Onderwijs, goed gedrag en hard werken zou tot respect leiden
  • Opzetten lerarenopleiding

→ Past zich deels aan aan situatie


W. E. B. Dubois

  • Wil gelijke rechten opeisen
  • Oprichting NAACP

MAAR: stond te ver af van de gewone bevolking


First, we would vote; with the right to vote goes everything: Freedom, manhood, the honor of your wives, the chastity of your daughters, the right to work, and the chance to rise, and let no man listen to those who deny this.

We want full manhood suffrage, and we want it now, henceforth and forever.

  • Second. We want discrimination in public accommodation to cease. Separation in railway and street cars, based simply on race and color, is un-American, un-democratic, and silly. We protest against all such discrimination.
  • Third. We claim the right of freemen to walk, talk, and be with them that wish to be with us. No man has a right to choose another man’s friends, and to attempt to do so is an impudent interference with the most fundamental human privilege.
  • Fourth. We want the laws enforced against rich as well as poor; against Capitalist as well as Laborer; against white as well as black. We are not more lawless than the white race, we are more often arrested, convicted, and mobbed. We want justice even for criminals and outlaws. We want the Constitution of the country enforced. We want Congress to take charge of Congressional elections. We want the Fourteenth amendment carried out to the letter and every State disfranchised in Congress which attempts to disfranchise its rightful voters. We want the Fifteenth amendment enforced and No State allowed to base its franchise simply on color.

The failure of the Republican Party in Congress at the session just closed to redeem its pledge of 1904 with reference to suffrage conditions at the South seems a plain, deliberate, and premeditated breach of promise, and stamps that party as guilty of obtaining votes under false pretense.

  • Fifth, We want our children educated. The school system in the country districts of the South is a disgrace and in few towns and cities are Negro schools what they ought to be. We want the national government to step in and wipe out illiteracy in the South. Either the United States will destroy ignorance or ignorance will destroy the United States.