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Fisheries Management: Principal Methods, Advantages and Disadvantages. Fridrik M. Baldursson Institute of Economic Studies University of Iceland Presentation at information seminar held by the Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries Kopavogur, Iceland September 6, 2002.

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Fisheries Management: Principal Methods, Advantages and Disadvantages


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fisheries management principal methods advantages and disadvantages

Fisheries Management: Principal Methods, Advantages and Disadvantages

Fridrik M. BaldurssonInstitute of Economic Studies

University of Iceland

Presentation at information seminar held by the Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries

Kopavogur, Iceland September 6, 2002

why manage a commercially valuable fish stock
Why manage a commercially valuable fish stock?
  • Open access:
    • No incentives among producers to conserve the resource for future use
    • Leads to competition among producers to catch fish before others do
    • Overinvestment and overfishing
    • At best, fishery is run with zero profits, at worst the stock collapses
  • Managing necessary, economically and biologically!
challenges
Challenges
  • Fluctuations, uncertainty and imperfect information
  • Multispecies fisheries, by-catches and discards
  • Monitoring and enforcement
  • Incomplete and multiple jurisdiction
  • Socio-economic issues
management measures
Management measures
  • Output constraints
  • Input constraints
  • Technical measures
output regulation
Output regulation
  • Total allowable catch (TAC)
  • Individual fishing quotas
  • Vessel catch limits
input regulation
Input regulation
  • Individual effort quotas (e.g. no. of days at sea )
  • Limited licenses (e.g. number of boats)
  • Other gear and vessel restrictions (e.g. size of boats)
technical measures
Technical measures
  • Time and area closures
  • Size and sex selectivity
  • Neither effective nor efficient on their own
  • Necessary side measures within other management regimes
  • Not discussed further
comments
Comments
  • Measures of different types can be (and are) used jointly
  • Individual concessions may be tradable or non-tradable
  • Choice of management regime should take account of a number of features
    • characteristics of fisheries (biological , economic, social, institutional)
    • goals of government (economic efficiency, biological conservation, social/regional patterns)
input regulation in theory and practice
Input regulation in theory and practice
  • Operators have strong incentives to invest in new and more productive boats and equipment to increase productivity  overinvestment
  • In principle, biological targets achieved
  • In practice
    • impossible to control all inputs
    • difficult to reduce no. of boats / effort when needed
  • Usually results in inefficient fisheries and fishing in excess of goals
tac only
TAC only
  • “Olympic fishing”
  • In theory: inefficient, but can conserve stocks
  • Experience: bad on both counts
    • race-to-fish
    • overinvestment
    • higher fishing and processing costs
slide15

Source: “Sharing the Fish: Toward a National Policy on Fishing Quotas.” National Academy Press 1999

slide16

Source: “Sharing the Fish: Toward a National Policy on Fishing Quotas.” National Academy Press 1999

tac ifqs
TAC + IFQs
  • Advantages
    • can achieve TAC
    • leads to efficient fisheries (fishing and processing), especially with tradability
  • Necessary conditions:
    • Stock can be measured with reasonable accuracy
    • TACs are set for efficiency and conservation
    • Cost effective monitoring and enforcement possible
    • Stakeholder support and participation (as in all regimes!)
disadvantages
Disadvantages
  • Socio-economic issues
    • Allocation; distribution of resource rent
    • Regional impacts
    • Entry
  • Biological issues
    • high-grading and discarding
    • bycatches
  • Questions:
    • to what extent are these issues more difficult in IQ system that other systems?
    • To what extent can they be mitigated?
conclusion
Conclusion
  • No “one-size fits all” solution
  • TAC+ITQ system is a good solution, given the right circumstances
  • Problems are often an inevitable consequence given the goal of sustainable management
  • Ongoing process - must constantly take improved knowledge into account