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A Cost-Effective, High-Bandwidth Storage Architecture. Garth A. Gibson, David F. Nagle, Khalil Amiri, Jeff Butler, Fay W. Chang, Howard Gobioff, Charles Hardin, Erik Riedel, David Rochberg, Jim Zelenka. Topics. What is NASD Goals of design and design principle Architecture of NASD

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a cost effective high bandwidth storage architecture

A Cost-Effective, High-Bandwidth Storage Architecture

Garth A. Gibson, David F. Nagle, Khalil Amiri, Jeff Butler, Fay W. Chang,

Howard Gobioff, Charles Hardin, Erik Riedel, David Rochberg, Jim Zelenka

  • What is NASD
  • Goals of design and design principle
  • Architecture of NASD
  • File system
  • NASD-PFS Performance
  • Future work
  • Conclusions
  • Questions
  • Network-Attached Secure Disk

Network-Attached Secure Disks (NASD) enable cost-effective bandwidth scaling. NASD eliminates the server bandwidth bottleneck by modifying storage devices to transfer data directly to clients and also repartitions traditional file server or database functionality between the drive, client and server.

goals of design
Goals of design
  • Cost-effective bandwidth scaling

No traditional storage file server

  • Secure
design principles
Design principles
  • direct transfer to clients

Data is transferred between drive and client without indirection or store-and-forward through a file server machine.

  • secure interfaces via cryptographic support

By attaching storage to the network, we open drives to direct attack from adversaries. Thus, it is necessary to apply cryptographic techniques to defend against potential attacks.

design principles cont
Design principles cont.
  • asynchronous oversight

The ability of the client to perform most operations without synchronous appeal to the file manager.

  • variably-sized data objects

To allow drives direct knowledge of the relationships between disk blocks and to minimize security overhead. This also improves opportunities for storage self-management by extending into a disk an understanding of the relationships between blocks on the disk.

enabling technology
Enabling technology
  • I/O-bound applications

Video,audio, application such as data mining of retail transactions, telecommunication call records

  • New drive attachment technology

Fibrechannel, a serial, switched, packet-based peripheral network

  • Excess of on-drive transistors

0.68 micron CMOS->0.35 micron CMOS, put StrongArm, DRAM or cryptographic support on disk drive

enabling technology cont
Enabling technology cont.
  • Convergence of peripheral and interprocessor networks

Low latency network protocol, such as VIA which narrow the gap between the channel properties of peripheral interconnects and the network properties of client interconnects.

  • Cost-ineffective storage servers
file system
File system
  • Port NFS and AFS to NASD

NFS: data moving operations(read, write) and attribute reads (getattr) are directed to the NASD drive while all other requests are handled by the file manager.

Andrew benchmark, NASD-NFS and NFS had benchmark times within 5% of each other.

  • NASD-optimized parallel filesystem
file system cont
File system cont.

The filesystem manages objects which are not directly backed by data. Instead, they are backed by a storage manager, Cheops, which redirects clients to the underlying component NASD objects. Cheops maintains the mapping of higher-level objects to the objects on the individual devices. NASD PFS employs Cheops as its storage management.

nasd pfs performance
NASD-PFS Performance

One disk:


NASD PFS delivers nearly all of the bandwidth of the NASD drives, while the same application using a powerful NFS server fails to deliver half the performance of the underlying Cheetah drives.

future work
Future work
  • Active disk

This next generation of storage devices provides an execution environment directly at individual drives and allows code to execute near the data and before it is placed on the interconnect network.

NASD enables this type of extension functionality for the first time because the object-based interface provides sufficient knowledge of the data at the individual devices without having to resort to external metadata.

  • Traditional storage servers are not effective. Storage tranfering data directly on the client’s network will reduce the cost greatly
  • NASD is cost-effective
  • NASD can provide scalable bandwidth
  • Conventional distributed filesystems(NFS and AFS) can be ported to use NASD with performance comparable to current server-based systems.
  • What is NASD?
  • Compared to storage servers, what is the major benefit of NASD?
  • What the major properties of NASD? (four)