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Chapter 14 Divorce and Remarriage. Macro Factors Contributing to Divorce. Divorce : the termination of a valid marriage contract Divorce occurs more frequently today than in the earlier days of the U.S. due to various structural and cultural factors. Macro Factors.

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macro factors contributing to divorce
Macro Factors Contributing to Divorce
  • Divorce: the termination of a valid marriage contract
  • Divorce occurs more frequently today than in the earlier days of the U.S. due to various structural and cultural factors.
macro factors
Macro Factors
  • Changing family functions and structure
  • Liberal divorce laws
    • No-fault divorce: a divorce in which neither party is identified as the guilty party or the cause of the divorce
  • Prenuptial agreements
  • Fewer moral and religious sanctions
macro factors1
Macro Factors
  • More divorce models
  • Mobility and anonymity
  • Social class, ethnicity, and culture
  • Educated white Americans are the least likely to divorce
micro factors contributing to divorce
Micro Factors Contributing to Divorce
  • Micro factors are individual factors that are predictive of divorce.
  • More likely to be seen as the cause of the divorce
micro factors
Micro Factors
  • Falling out of love
  • Not spending enough time together
  • Decreasing positive behaviors: compliments, physical affection
  • Having an affair
  • Poor conflict resolution skills
  • Changing values
micro factors1
Micro Factors
  • Satiation: habituation, the state in which a stimulus loses its value with repeated exposure
  • Believing life will be better if divorced
ending relationship
Ending Relationship
  • Psychological functioning and happiness of spouses going through a divorce improve after the divorce.
  • Data are mixed on whether remaining unhappily married or getting divorced and remarried has a more positive outcome for the spouses.
gender differences in filing for divorce
Gender Differences in Filing for Divorce
  • Women are the first to seek help when there is trouble in the relationship.
  • Women are likely to feel a renewed sense of self-identity.
  • Men are concerned about separation from their children.
consequences for spouses who divorce
Consequences for Spouses Who Divorce
  • The spouse who did not instigate the divorce is more vulnerable to depression.
  • Women fare better emotionally after a divorce.
  • Men are likely to date and remarry sooner.
  • Relationships with extended family change.
  • Spouses recover sooner if they find new interests.
  • Both women and men experience a drop in income.
  • Women tend to suffer more financially.
  • Over half of custodial mothers are awarded child support but most find the amount inadequate.
  • Divorced mothers serve as gatekeepers for the relationship children have with the father.
  • A father’s relationship with a daughter is usually more damaged than his relationship with a son.
  • Shared parenting dysfunction: refers to the set of behaviors on the part of each parent that are focused on hurting the other spouse
  • Parental alienation syndrome: a disturbance in which children are obsessively preoccupied with deprecation or criticism of a parent
  • Parental alienation: an alliance between a parent and a child that isolates the other parent
effects of divorce on children
Effects of Divorce on Children
  • Benefits of divorce for children
    • Better than living in high-conflict home
    • Learn resilience
    • Receive more attention
  • Negative outcomes of divorce for children
    • Less marital satisfaction
    • Poorer communication skills
    • Poorer parent-child relationships
effects on children
Effects on Children
  • The primary factor that determines the effect of divorce on children is the degree to which the divorcing parents are civil or adversarial.
  • Legal and physical custody arrangements are also important.
effects on children1
Effects on Children
  • Legal custody: decisional authority over major issues involving the child
  • Physical custody: visitation, distribution of parenting time following divorce
  • Judges in all states are bound by the “best interests of the child.”
prerequisites for having a successful divorce
Prerequisites for Having a Successful Divorce
  • Mediate rather than litigate the divorce.
    • Divorce mediation: process in which divorcing parties make agreements with a third party about custody, visitation, child support, and property.
  • Coparent with your ex-spouse.
  • Take some responsibility for the divorce.
  • Learn from the divorce.
  • Create positive thoughts.
  • Avoid alcohol and other drugs.
  • Relax and exercise.
successful divorce
Successful Divorce
  • Let go of anger and have fun.
  • Continue interpersonal connections.
  • Allow time to heal.
successful divorce1
Successful Divorce

Psychological stages of divorce

  • Denial
  • Depression
  • Anger or ambivalence
  • New lifestyle and identity
  • Acceptance and integration
  • Blended family: a family in which new spouses have children from previous relationships
  • Binuclear family: a family that spans two households
  • Stepfamily: a family in which partners bring children from previous relationships into the new home

Unique aspects of stepfamilies:

  • Children are biologically related to only one parent.
  • Stepfamily members have experienced loss.
  • Stepfamily members are connected to others outside their family unit.
  • Children may have two homes.
  • Stepfamilies have reduced disposable income.

Unique aspects of stepfamilies

  • Step families are stigmatized by stepism: the assumption that stepfamilies are inferior.
  • Married couples begin their marriage with children in the home.
  • The law usually recognizes children of the first family.