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Air. Chapter 12. What Causes Air Pollution. 1273- King Edward I banned burning lignite (a form of dirty coal) because of air pollution. Air pollution- the contamination of the atmosphere by waste from sources such as industrial pollution and car exhaust.

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Chapter 12

what causes air pollution
What Causes Air Pollution
  • 1273- King Edward I banned burning lignite (a form of dirty coal) because of air pollution.
  • Air pollution- the contamination of the atmosphere by waste from sources such as industrial pollution and car exhaust.
    • Can be in the form of solid, liquids, or gases
    • Some pollution is natural- dust, pollen, spores, and sulfur dioxide.
what causes air pollution1
What Causes Air Pollution
  • Primary pollutants- pollutants put directly into the atmosphere by human or natural activity. (ex. Smoke)
  • Secondary pollutants- a pollutant that forms from a chemical reaction with primary pollutants, natural components in the atmosphere, or both
what causes air pollution3
What Causes Air Pollution
  • Sources of primary pollutants-
    • Vehicles and Coal burning power plants
      • Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide (NOx), particulates
    • Power plants-
      • Sulfur oxide (Sox)
    • Vehicles and gas stations-
      • Volatile organic compounds (VOC’s)
    • Course particulates
      • Cement plants, mining, incinerators, wood-burning fireplaces, fields, and roads
what causes air pollution5
What Causes Air Pollution
  • Controlling vehicle emissions
    • 2.6 million miles driven in 1996 (90% by passenger vehicles)
    • Clean Air Act (1970 & 1990)- gave the EPA the authority to control vehicle emissions.
      • Declined lead in fuel= decrease in lead emissions
      • Catalytic converter- decreased the emissions coming out of the tail pipe of the car
what causes air pollution7
What Causes Air Pollution
  • Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEV)
    • Electric cars
    • Hydrogen fuel cells
what causes air pollution8
What Causes Air Pollution
  • Industrial pollution
    • Power plants produce 2/3rd of the SOx and 1/3rd of the NOx
    • Scrubbers are used to remove pollutant gases from industrial emissions
what causes air pollution10
What Causes Air Pollution
  • Smog results from a chemical reaction between sunlight, air, automobile exhaust, and ozone.
what causes air pollution11
What Causes Air Pollution
  • Temperature Inversion- Air normally cools with altitude, but when a temperature inversion occurs warm air rides on top of cooler air.
air light and noise pollution
Air, Light, and Noise Pollution
  • Short term effects of air pollution
    • Headache
    • Nausea
    • Irritation to eyes, nose, throat
    • Tightness in chest
    • Coughing
    • Upper respiratory infections
air light and noise pollution1
Air, Light, and Noise Pollution
  • Long-term health effects of air pollution
    • Emphysema
    • Lung cancer
    • Heart disease
air light and noise pollution2
Air, Light, and Noise Pollution
  • Indoor air quality is frequently much worse than outdoor air quality because air movement is decreased indoors.
  • Sick-building syndrome= buildings with very poor air quality
  • Methods of improving indoor air quality
    • Ventilation
    • Mixing indoor air with outdoor air
    • Removing the pollutants
air light and noise pollution4
Air, Light, and Noise Pollution
  • Indoor Air Pollution
    • Radon Gas- colorless, odorless, and tasteless radioactive gas.
    • Asbestos- a chemical compound that is used for insulation and as a fire retardant. It can be classified as a carcinogen (cancer causing agent)
air light and noise pollution5
Air, Light, and Noise Pollution
  • Light Pollution
    • No human health hazards
    • Negative affect on the environment
    • Wasted energy with lights projecting up in to the atmosphere
air light and noise pollution6
Air, Light, and Noise Pollution
  • Noise Pollution
    • Can affect human health and the quality of light
    • As sound over 120dB can cause permanent hearing loss.
acid precipitation
Acid Precipitation
  • Acid precipitation is any rain sleet or snow with high levels of acid dissolved into it.
    • pH is a measure of how acidic or basic a substance is. (1-6.9 is acid-7 is neutral-7.1-12 is base)
acid precipitation2
Acid Precipitation
  • Acidification- the lowering of the pH of the soil
    • Kills plants
    • Washes away nutrients
  • Acid is aquatic ecosystems
    • Acid Shock- rapid change in the pH of water
      • Kills large #’s of fish and amphibians
      • Limestone is spread on some lakes to counteract the effects of decrease in pH.
acid precipitation3
Acid Precipitation
  • Acid precipitations affects on humans
    • Can cause health problems
      • Increase in respiratory problems
    • Destroy buildings made of concrete and limestone
  • To control acid precipitation international cooperation is needed.
    • Canada- U.S. Air Quality Agreement 1991