The Enlightenment Spreads Chapter 6-3
Goals and Objectives • Upon completion students should be able to: • Explain how Enlightenment ideas spread throughout Europe. • Describe changes in art, music and literature during the Enlightenment. • Show how the Enlightenment ideas reformed European monarchies.
New ideas • Enlightenment ideas spread through the Western world and profoundly influence the arts and government
A World of Ideas • Paris becomes center of Enlightenment during 1700’s • City is home to salons – gathering where thinkers discuss ideas
Diderot’s Encyclopedia • Denis Diderot begins publishing his work in 1751 • Encyclopedia is a set of books in which thinkers contributed essays
Angers French government and the Catholic church • Helps spread ideas of the Enlightenment
New Artistic Ideas • Neoclassical Ideas – styles based on Greek/Roman ideas • Pre-Enlightenment art style was baroque – grand, ornate design
Classical music emerges – lighter, more elegant than earlier style • Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven
Enlightenment Despots • Enlightenment Despots – monarchs who embrace enlightenment values to strengthen their rule
Frederick the Great • Frederick II, King of Prussia, reforms education and justice system • Grants religious freedom, abolishes torture, fails to end serfdom
Joseph II • Joseph II of Austria allows freedom of worship and press • Abolishes serfdom, but the practice is reinstated after his death
Catherine the Great • Enlightenment ruler of Russia,1762 – 1796 • Seeks to abolish capital punishment and torture, but effort fails
Responds to peasant revolt by giving more power to the nobles over serfs
Successfully expands Russian Empire • Gains port access for Russia by capturing northern coast of the Black Sea
Review exercise • Answer the following question? • 1. What factors allowed the Enlightenment to spread? List and explain them • 2. What city was considered to be the center of the Enlightenment? Why was this? • 3. What specific changes were seen in art, literature and music as a result of the Enlightenment? • 4. What were Enlightenment despots? • 5. What changes were attempted by some of the Enlightenment despots?