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Parts of Speech. Nouns. Person: boy, teacher, Josh, doctor Place: Miami, city, countryside Thing: house, tree, horse, bicycle, ice cream Idea: democracy, truth, illusion, fantasy Quality: beauty, caring, hatred, boredom. When to Capitalize N ouns. Names of specific people: Mrs. Houck

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nouns
Nouns

Person: boy, teacher, Josh, doctor

Place: Miami, city, countryside

Thing: house, tree, horse, bicycle, ice cream

Idea: democracy, truth, illusion, fantasy

Quality: beauty, caring, hatred, boredom

when to capitalize n ouns
When to Capitalize Nouns
  • Names of specific people:
    • Mrs. Houck
  • Days of week, months, and holidays, but not seasons
  • Ranks and titles when used with a person’s name:
    • Doctor Smith or doctor
  • Specific geographic areas:
    • New York City or city
  • Names of specific schools, businesses, organizations:
    • Daniel Boone High School or high school
when to capitalize nouns
When to Capitalize Nouns
  • Regions of the US:
    • Midwest or north side of town
  • Historical periods:
    • World War II or war
  • Religions, nationalities, languages, and races
  • Specific school subjects, not general subjects:
    • Algebra 101 or math
  • Letters that stand alone:
    • T-shirt, X-ray
making nouns possessive
Making Nouns Possessive
  • Usually add an apostrophe s:
    • Mrs. Houck - Mrs. Houck’s classroom
    • The Williams -The Williams’ house
  • If two people own the same thing, only the second gets apostrophe s:
    • Arnold and Helga’s baseball
  • If two people don’t own the same thing, use an apostrophe s for both:
    • Arnold’s and Helga’s toes
making nouns plural
Making Nouns Plural
  • Usually add s:
    • House - Houses
  • If the words ends in o, usually add es:
    • Hero -Heroes
  • If the word ends in s, x, z, ch, or sh, add es:
    • Box -Boxes
  • If the word ends in y, and there’s a vowel before the y, add s
    • Play -Plays
making nouns plural1
Making Nouns Plural
  • If the word ends in y, and there’s a consonant before the y, changes the y to i and add es
    • Party -Parties
  • If a compound noun has a main noun in it, add the s to the main noun
    • Father-in-law -Fathers-in-law
  • If the compound noun has no main noun, add the s to the end
    • Follow-up -Follow-ups
pronouns
Pronouns
  • A word that stands for or takes the place of a noun.
  • Antecedent: the noun that the pronoun takes the place for.
    • Mrs. Houck and her student edited the paper.
      • Mrs. Houck=Antecedent Her=Pronoun
      • *Always try to keep the pronoun as close as possible to its antecedent*
pronoun cases
Pronoun Cases
  • Subjective: the doer of the action.
    • I sing
  • Objective: the receiver of the action.
    • Sing to me
  • Possessive: shows ownership.
    • My song
forms of pronouns
Forms of Pronouns
  • Reflexive and Intensive:
    • Reflexive: reflects action back upon the subject and adds information to the sentence.
      • Donna prepared herself for a long day.
    • Intensive: adds emphasis to a noun or pronoun.
      • The wait itself would take hours.
  • Demonstrative:
    • Indicate whether the things you are pointing out are relatively near in time or space or farther away.
      • This, these, that, and those.
forms of pronouns1
Forms of Pronouns
  • Indefinite:
    • Does not refer to a specific person, place, or thing.
      • Singular: another, anybody, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, much, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, or something.
      • Plural: both, few, many, several.
      • Singular or plural: all, any, more, most, none, some.
  • Interrogative and Relative:
    • Interrogative: used to ask a question.
      • Who, whom, whose, which, what.
        • What is your favorite song?
    • Relative: used to introduce subordinate clauses.
      • Who, whom, whose, which, that.
        • The seats that the students asked for were unavailable.
verbs
Verbs
  • A word that shows action or state of being.
  • Verb Tenses
    • Present: I ace tests, but not often enough.
    • Past: I aced the test yesterday.
    • Future: I will eat pizza later today.
    • Present Perfect: I have eaten pizza many times.
    • Past Perfect: I had eaten pizza just before you arrived.
    • Future Perfect: I will have eaten pizza at least a million times by the year 2020.
types of verbs
Types of Verbs
  • Action Verbs:
    • Expresses action
      • The band marches onto the field. (physical)
      • The audience expects a great performance. (emotional)
  • Linking Verbs:
    • Links the subject of a sentence to a word in the predicate.
      • Forms of to be: The instruments are safe in the bus.
      • Verbs that express condition: The students seemed bored during the long trip
        • Look, smell, feel, sound, taste, grow, appear, become, seem, remain.
  • Auxiliary verbs:
    • Are combined with verbs to form verb phrases.
      • The stadium is filled to the capacity.
infinitives
Infinitives
  • An infinitive is a verb with the word to in front of it.
    • Never split infinitives, ie put words in between the word to and the verb.
      • It is usually better to not split infinitives.
      • It is usually better not to split infinitives.
active or passive voice
Active or Passive Voice
  • Passive voice should be avoided in formal writing
    • Passive: The ball was hit.
    • Active: Samantha hit the ball.
    • Passive: My nose was punched by you.
    • Active: You punched me in the nose.
gerunds
Gerunds
  • When you put –ing on the end of the verb, it can be turned into a noun or gerund.
    • I run. -Run=verb
    • Running is fun. -Running=gerund
adjectives and adverbs
Adjectives and Adverbs
  • A word that describes a noun or a pronoun.
    • Which one this or that
    • What kind red, large, sick, cloudy, petite
    • How many six, many, several
  • A word that describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
    • Where there, here, away
    • When now, then, later, immediately
    • How quickly, stupidly, gracefully
    • How often frequently, never, once, sometimes
    • How much hardly, extremely, greatly, too
adjectives and adverbs1
Adjectives and Adverbs
  • Positive: small or beautiful
  • Comparative: smaller or more beautiful
  • Superlative: smallest or most beautiful
    • Rule of thumb: most short adjectives/adverbs get –er or –est, and most long adjectives/adverbs get more or most.
conjunctions
Conjunctions
  • A word that joins words or groups of words.
    • Coordinating Conjunctions: Connect words or groups of words of equal importance.
      • And, but, for, nor, or, so, yet, etc
    • Correlative Conjunctions: conjunctions used in pairs.
      • Either-or, neither-nor, not only-but also, both-and
    • Subordinating Conjunctions: introduce subordinate clauses and join them so independent clauses.
      • The band waited while the director checked the lighting.
prepositions
Prepositions
  • A word that shows how a noun or pronoun relates to another part of the sentence.
    • In, on, of, by, for, with etc.
    • Rule of thumb: don’t end a sentence in a preposition.
      • Ends in preposition: I’m the one she’s sitting next to.
      • Doesn’t end in preposition: She is sitting next to me.
interjections
Interjections
  • Word or phrase used to express emotion.
    • Wow, gee, hey, ouch, aha, boy, imagine, and unbelievable.
    • A strong interjection is followed by an exclamation point.
      • Yikes! Our project is due tomorrow.
    • A mild interjection is followed by a comma.
      • Well, where should we start.