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Chemical Formulae. Ionic versus Molecular/Covalent Ionic compounds typically feature a metal ( cation ) and a nonmetal ( anion ). Molecular compounds are composed of nonmetals exclusively. Both must be electrically neutral in charge.

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chemical formulae

Chemical Formulae

Ionic versus Molecular/Covalent

Ionic compounds typically feature a metal (cation) and a nonmetal (anion).

Molecular compounds are composed of nonmetals exclusively.

Both must be electrically neutral in charge.

Nomenclature (naming) has similarities… the differences occur because of the law of multiple proportions.

The same elements can make multiple, different compounds... Roman numerals or prefixes are used.

molecular formulae

Molecular Formulae

CO2

This iscarbon dioxide.

Formula Structure

Elements present

Subscripts* (shows how much of each element)

* If no subscript is present it means that there is only one atom of that element

This is a molecule of a molecular compound.

molecular nomenclature

Molecular Nomenclature

Naming Rules

Write the names of both elements.

You will only learn covalent naming for binary compounds

Change the ending of the second element to -ide.

Add prefixes to each element to indicate the subscripted number of atoms present.

If the first element only has one atom then no prefix is added.

Example: CO2 becomes

carbon dioxide

carbon oxygen

carbon oxide

carbon dioxide

molecular nomenclature4

Molecular Nomenclature

Prefixes

- Greek prefixes used…

mono-

di–

tri-

tetra-

penta-

hexa-

hepta-

octa-

nona-

deca-

- The final “o” or “a” of the prefix is usually dropped when preceding an element beginning with a vowel.

molecular compound formulae molecules

Molecular Compound Formulae(Molecules)

B3+C4+C4-

C2+C2-N3+ N3-N5+

N4+N2+ O2-O1- F1- Si4+

Si2+ P5+ P3+P3-S6+

S4+ S2+S2-Cl1+

Cl1-Cl7+Cl5+ Cl3+

As3+ As3-

As5+Se4+ Se6+

Se2- Br1+ Br1- Br7+

Br5+ Br3+Te4+ Te6+Te2- I7+

I5+I1+ I1-At1+ At1-At7+

At5+At3+

As2Se

diarsenic

monoselenide

As2O5

diarsenic

pentoxide

As2S5

diarsenic

pentasulfide

As2Se3

diarsenic

triselenide

AsF3

arsenic

trifluoride

AsCl3

arsenic

trichloride

AsBr3

arsenic

tribromide

As2S3

diarsenic

trisulfide

AsF5

arsenic

pentachloride

As4S4

tetraarsenic

tetrasulfide

AsI3

arsenic

triiodide

As2O3

diarsenic

trioxide

Go To Next Slide

molecular compound formulae molecules6

Molecular Compound Formulae(Molecules)

B3+C4+C4-

C2+C2-N3+ N3-N5+

N4+N2+ O2-O1- F1- Si4+

Si2+ P5+ P3+P3-S6+

S4+ S2+S2-Cl1+

Cl1-Cl7+Cl5+ Cl3+

As3+ As3-

As5+Se4+ Se6+

Se2- Br1+ Br1- Br7+

Br5+ Br3+Te4+ Te6+Te2- I7+

I5+I1+ I1-At1+ At1-At7+

At5+At3+

B2Cl4

diboron

tetrachloride

B4C

tetraboron

monocarbide

BBr3

boron

tribromide

BF3

boron

trifluoride

BCl3

boron

trichloride

B2O3

diboron trioxide

BN

boron nitride

Go To Next Slide

molecular compound formulae molecules7

Molecular Compound Formulae(Molecules)

B3+C4+C4-

C2+C2-N3+ N3-N5+

N4+N2+ O2-O1- F1- Si4+

Si2+ P5+ P3+P3-S6+

S4+ S2+S2-Cl1+

Cl1-Cl7+Cl5+ Cl3+

As3+ As3-

As5+Se4+ Se6+

Se2- Br1+ Br1- Br7+

Br5+ Br3+Te4+ Te6+Te2- I7+

I5+I1+ I1-At1+ At1-At7+

At5+At3+

CCl4

carbon

tetrachloride

CN4

carbon

tetranitride

CO2

carbon

dioxide

CSe2

carbon

diselenide

CI4

carbon

tetraiodide

CF4

carbon

tetrafluoride

CS2

carbon

disulfide

CO

carbon

monoxide

Go To Next Slide

molecular compound formulae molecules8

Molecular Compound Formulae(Molecules)

B3+C4+C4-

C2+C2-N3+ N3-N5+

N4+N2+ O2-O1- F1- Si4+

Si2+ P5+ P3+P3-S6+

S4+ S2+S2-Cl1+

Cl1-Cl7+Cl5+ Cl3+

As3+ As3-

As5+Se4+ Se6+

Se2- Br1+ Br1- Br7+

Br5+ Br3+Te4+ Te6+Te2- I7+

I5+I1+ I1-At1+ At1-At7+

At5+At3+

ClF

chlorine

monofluoride

ClF3

chlorine

trifluoride

Cl2O

dichlorine

monoxide

Cl2O7

dichlorine

heptoxide

ClO2

chlorine

dioxide

Go To Next Slide

molecular compound formulae molecules9

Molecular Compound Formulae(Molecules)

B3+C4+C4-

C2+C2-N3+ N3-N5+

N4+N2+ O2-O1- F1- Si4+

Si2+ P5+ P3+P3-S6+

S4+ S2+S2-Cl1+

Cl1-Cl7+Cl5+ Cl3+

As3+ As3-

As5+Se4+ Se6+

Se2- Br1+ Br1- Br7+

Br5+ Br3+Te4+ Te6+Te2- I7+

I5+I1+ I1-At1+ At1-At7+

At5+At3+

IF5

iodine

pentafluoride

IF7

iodine

heptafluoride

I2O5

diiodine

pentoxide

F2O

fluoride

monoxide

GeCl4

germanium

tetrachloride

GeF4

germanium

tetrafluoride

ICl

iodine

monochloride

H2O

dihydrogen

monoxide

ICl3

iodine

trichloride

GeCl2

germanium

dichloride

F2O2

fluoride

dioxide

Go To Next Slide

molecular compound formulae molecules10

Molecular Compound Formulae(Molecules)

B3+C4+C4-

C2+C2-N3+ N3-N5+

N4+N2+ O2-O1- F1- Si4+

Si2+ P5+ P3+P3-S6+

S4+ S2+S2-Cl1+

Cl1-Cl7+Cl5+ Cl3+

As3+ As3-

As5+Se4+ Se6+

Se2- Br1+ Br1- Br7+

Br5+ Br3+Te4+ Te6+Te2- I7+

I5+I1+ I1-At1+ At1-At7+

At5+At3+

NCl3

nitrogen

chloride

NH3

nitrogen

trihydride

NO

nitrogen

monoxide

NO2

nitrogen

dioxide

N2O5

dinitrogen

pentoxide

N4S4

tetranitrogen

tetrasulfide

N4Se4

tetranitrogen

tetraselenide

NF3

nitrogen

fluoride

N2O

dinitrogen

monoxide

Go To Next Slide

molecular compound formulae molecules11

Molecular Compound Formulae(Molecules)

B3+C4+C4-

C2+C2-N3+ N3-N5+

N4+N2+ O2-O1- F1- Si4+

Si2+ P5+ P3+P3-S6+

S4+ S2+S2-Cl1+

Cl1-Cl7+Cl5+ Cl3+

As3+ As3-

As5+Se4+ Se6+

Se2- Br1+ Br1- Br7+

Br5+ Br3+Te4+ Te6+Te2- I7+

I5+I1+ I1-At1+ At1-At7+

At5+At3+

PCl3

phosphorus

trichloride

P2O5

diphosphorus

pentoxide

P2S5

phosphorus

pentasulfide

PCl5

phosphorus

pentachloride

PF3

phosphorus

trifluoride

PF5

phosphorus

pentafluoride

PH3

phosphorus

trihydride

P2O3

diphosphorus

trioxide

P2Se5

diphosphorus

pentaselenide

P4Se3

tetraphosphorus

triselenide

P4S3

tetraphosphorus

trisulfide

Go To Next Slide

molecular compound formulae molecules12

Molecular Compound Formulae(Molecules)

B3+C4+C4-

C2+C2-N3+ N3-N5+

N4+N2+ O2-O1- F1- Si4+

Si2+ P5+ P3+P3-S6+

S4+ S2+S2-Cl1+

Cl1-Cl7+Cl5+ Cl3+

As3+ As3-

As5+Se4+ Se6+

Se2- Br1+ Br1- Br7+

Br5+ Br3+Te4+ Te6+Te2- I7+

I5+I1+ I1-At1+ At1-At7+

At5+At3+

S2Cl2

disulfur

dichloride

Se2Cl2

diselenium

dichloride

SeCl4

selenium

tetrachloride

SeF4

selenium

tetrafluoride

SeS2

selenium

disulfide

SF4

sulfur

tetrafluoride

SF6

sulfur

hexafluoride

SO2

sulfur

dioxide

SeO2

selenium

dioxide

SO3

sulfur

trioxide

Go To Next Slide

molecular compound formulae molecules13

Molecular Compound Formulae(Molecules)

B3+C4+C4-

C2+C2-N3+ N3-N5+

N4+N2+ O2-O1- F1- Si4+

Si2+ P5+ P3+P3-S6+

S4+ S2+S2-Cl1+

Cl1-Cl7+Cl5+ Cl3+

As3+ As3-

As5+Se4+ Se6+

Se2- Br1+ Br1- Br7+

Br5+ Br3+Te4+ Te6+Te2- I7+

I5+I1+ I1-At1+ At1-At7+

At5+At3+

SiC

silicon

monocarbide

SiCl4

silicon

tetrachloride

SiF4

silicon

tetrafluoride

Si3N4

trisilicon

tetranitride

SiO

silicon

monoxide

SiO2

silicon

dioxide

SiS2

silicon

disulfide

TeCl2

tellurium

dichloride

TeCl4

tellurium

tetrachloride

TeI4

tellurium

tetraiodide

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