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  2. Objective of The Program • To prevent onset of drug use among young people. • To involve stakeholders & influencers (Schools, NGOs, like minded individuals) to be part of the program. • To provide young people with authentic information and knowledge that would clarify their doubts and address their problems. • To bring about changes in attitudes and values of young people to enable them to make positive life choices. • To equip the young people with the skills needed to deal effectively with addictions.

  3. 2004 NATIONAL DRUG SURVEY REPORT ON “Extent, Pattern and Trends of Drug Abuse in India” Prevalence Dependency ‘Vol. of Work’ Under 18* ALCOHOL 62.5 m 16.8% 10.5 m 21% CANNABIS 8.7 m 25.7% 2.3 m 3% OPIATES 2.0 m 22.3% 0.5 m 0.1% * MSJE/UNODC National Household Survey

  4. Survey findings • Alcohol, cannabis and opiates are the major substances of abuse in India. • Prevalence of drug abuse among males is significant but drug abuse among women exists. • Hazards and burden on women due to drug abuse is significant. • Pockets of high use exist. • Drug abuse no longer an urban phenomenon – even IDU seen both in rural and urban areas. • Number of dependent users ‘not in treatment’ is significant. • Significant gap in service delivery.

  5. An important finding from the prevention perspective From those who have “ever” used substances, one finds that the following percentage continue to use the following drugs. • 80% for alcohol • 70% for cannabis • 65% for opiates Hence, experimenting is dangerous and the drugs habit, once initiated, stays.

  6. Why is prevention important • While some do drugs, there are many who don’t. The majority must stay that way. • Prevention allows people to understand repercussions - helps make informed and healthy choices • Experimenting can be dangerous – drug use habits stay • No one can predict addiction • Can take place in the community • An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure • Success rate of treatment is low • There are not enough beds

  7. Levels of prevention • Primary prevention programs refer to the very broad range of activities aimed at reducing the risk of drug use among non-users and assuring continued nonuse. • Secondary prevention targets at-risk groups, early experimenters and abuse populations in order to stop the progression to drugs of abuse • Tertiary prevention is intervention at an advanced state of drug use/abuse. Very similar to drug abuse treatment.

  8. The main goals of prevention • Target young people before they start using substances • Discourage or stop use in those young people who are already experimenting or using


  10. When do people start using drugs? • Research has shown that those who use drugs, start doing so during adolescence • Drug use starts with ‘softer drugs’, progressing gradually to ‘harder drugs’ • Not all who start ‘softer drugs’ go on to use ‘harder drugs’

  11. What is Adolescence The term adolescence comes from the Latin word adolescere, which means "to grow up" or "to grow to maturity." adolescent: 10 - 19 years youth : 15 - 24 years

  12. EVERYTHING HAPPENING ALL AT ONCE Psychological (and emotional) growth Effects of Physical Changes Social Maturation Educational Development

  13. As an Initiative to Prevent students from drug abuse, We have initiated a club called “I DECIDE”The students from class 6th to 12th will participate in the same. Slogan – “I decide”

  14. Factors Contributing to the Vulnerability of Adolescents

  15. PEER PRESSUREContinuous goading and pestering for something by friends is called peer pressure.Peer pressure is difficult to resist for (i)  Fear of isolation or rejection(ii) Fear of being made fun of by friends and others(iii) Fear of being blackmailed or termed as weak personality. . “IT WASN’T MY FAULT, MY FRIENDS MADE ME DO IT”

  16. CURIOSITY AND EXPERIMENTATION It is natural for young people to experiment out of curiosity. ‘Just try once’ is a characteristic statement of adolescence when among friends and can lead to addiction.

  17. MYTHS ABOUT SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE Young people may go for drugs due to false beliefs such as - Taking drugs indicates high social and economic status.- Taking drugs makes one superior to others- Taking drugs makes one feel confidante and independent

  18. FAMILY FACTORS Elders taking drugs in front of children or selling drugs- Easy availability of drugs at home.- Elders offering alcohol or drugs to young people for fun.- Lack of communication and education about hazards of drugs.- Family dysfunction Divorce Separation Inadequate parenting skills (inconsistent)- Parents try to cover up their child’s bad habits.

  19. ESCAPISM- People take drugs when they can not cope with everyday life situations- To get rid of depression- To escape boredom- To forget family problem- Because of emotional insecurity.- To get relief from long illness, aches and pains

  20. BOREDOM OR DEPRESSIONPeople take drugs because of- Absence of social and recreational activities.- Emotional, social or financial insecurity- No one to share problems with- Lack of discipline and self control

  21. Risk & protective factors in the drug use scenario • Risk factors: characteristics of an individual, or the community one comes from, that encourage or are linked to substance abuse • Protective factor: characteristics that discourage or are NOT linked to substance abuse

  22. Classification of Drugs • Medicinal: Improper use of prescribed or over the counter medicine (cough & cold remedies) can lead to serious health complications. • Non- Medicinal: They are solely used because of their ability to alter the person’s mental and physical state (Alcohol, Cigarettes, Pan Masala etc.). Non availability of these drugs make person feel bad and have an intense craving for the drug. • Effect on the central nervous system (depressants, stimulants & hallucinogens)

  23. Medicinal drugs Medicines are also drugs as they alter the physical or mental functioning of an individual. • ‘prescription drugs’ require a doctor’s prescription for them to be bought. • ‘over the counter drugs’ do not require a prescription.

  24. Gateway Drugs • Drugs that lead to use of other more powerful mind-altering drugs such as hallucinogens and cocaine-type drugs. • Alcohol • Tobacco

  25. Common drugs of abuse in India Cannabis Alcohol Opium Sedatives Pharmaceuticals Heroin

  26. Soft drugs Tobacco, Alcohol

  27. Hard drug Soft drugs Cannabis (Ganja, Charas); Cough Syrups; Inhalants

  28. Harder drug Hard drug Soft drugs Heroin, Injections etc.

  29. Other Substances of Abuse • Inhalants • Volatile hydrocarbons, ether, amyl nitrate (poppers), nitrous oxide, glue, correction fluid, butane, carburetor cleaner, Freon, Gasoline. • PCP • (Angel dust) • Stimulants • Amphetamines, Methamphetamine, Date rape drugs (MDMA {Ecstasy}, Speed, crank, ice) • Hallucinations • LSD (acid), psilocybin

  30. Anabolic steroids • Oral: Methandrostenolone (Dianabol), stanozolol (Winstrol) • Intramuscular: Nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) • Sedative hypnotics • Benzodiazepines, barbiturates • Opiates • Heroine, codeine • Minor tranquilizers • Librium, valium

  31. Key Messages • It is important to know what constitutes Substance Abuse. • It is important to have factual information regarding substances that can be abused. • Substances such as depressants, stimulants and hallucinogens are harmful, and have serious consequences for one’s health and well-being.


  33. Short-term Effects of Depressants Alcohol: - Removes inhibitions. - Talkativeness - Slurred speech - Disturbed sleep - Aggression including domestic violence and child abuse. - Impairs the judgment and coordination - Hangovers

  34. Long-Term Effects of Depressants Alcohol: • Alcoholism: causes physical, psychological, and social harm. • Sudden stoppage can produce withdrawal symptoms, including anxiety, tremors, hallucinations and fits • Alcohol-related liver disease • Heart disease • Cancer • Pancreatitis


  36. Nicotine • The effects of nicotine last from five minutes to two hours. • Most people who use nicotine do so several times a day in an effort to keep the pleasant effects of nicotine throughout the day and to avoid withdrawal. • Most cigarettes contain 0.1 to 2.8 milligrams of nicotine.

  37. Hallucinogens • Effects occurs rapidly & last from 30 mins (e.g. DMT) to several days (e.g. PCP). • Acute effect includes alteration of body perception, impaired attention & short term memory, disturbed sense of time, depersonalization, euphoria, mystical or religious experiences, grandiosity, anxiety, panic, visual distortion, hallucinations (primary visual), incoordination, muscle weakness, numbness.

  38. Cannabis Sativa plant A Dried Flower Bud of Cannabis Sativa (Slang: weed, reefer, grass, pot, joint)

  39. Cannabis Flowers / Buds Various Cannabis smoking machines

  40. The trichomes of Cannabis Plant Hasish (Hash) Golden Cannabis Oil

  41. Cannabis Oil Kief on the Parchment Paper

  42. Marijuana – Short Term Effects Also called Cannabis, ganja, grass, bhang, charas, hashish • Distorted perception (sights, sounds, time, touch) • Problems with memory/ learning • Trouble with thinking and problem solving • Loss of motor coordination • Increased heart rate

  43. Marijuana- Long Term Effects • Cancer of the respiratory tract and lungs • Effects the lungs and airways: coughing and wheezing. • Immune system: damages the cells and tissues in the body that help protect against disease, so that one is more likely to get sick.

  44. Perforated blotter paper soaked in Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) solution and dried. Slang: Acid, Cubes, sunshine, peace pills, Big D, blotters, Semi synthetic drug derived from ergot (fungus) Inhaled, injected, snorted, smoked.

  45. Phencyclidine Slang: Angel Dust, PCP, CJ, Crystal, Rocket Fuel Powder, chunks, crystals used as tablets, capsules, liquid, inhaled, snorted, injected

  46. Psilocybe Cyanescens Psilocybe Semilanceata Psychedelic Mushrooms Slang: Magic Mushrooms, Sacred mushrooms Used as dried mushrooms, white crystals, powder, capsule, injection, eaten raw, cooked Amanita Muscaria

  47. Short-term Effects of Hallucinogens LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) • Dilated pupils, higher body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, sweating, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, dry mouth, and tremors. • Mood Swings • Delusions and visual hallucinations. • The user's sense of time and self-changes. • Some LSD users experience severe, terrifying thoughts and feelings, fear of losing control, fear of insanity and death, and despair.

  48. Long-term Effects of Hallucinogens • LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) • Tolerance (users who take the drug repeatedly must take progressively higher doses to achieve the state of intoxication that they had previously achieved). • Psychological Dependence develops.

  49. Leaves & Berry Coca Plant Various Parts

  50. Cocaine Hydrochloride Extract from the leaves of coca plant Taken orally, snorted, smoked, injected Slang: coke, snow, flake, lady, big C, crack, candy, nose Cocaine bugs Crack Cocaine Free base cocaine, more potent