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The poultry industry - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The poultry industry

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  1. The poultry industry

  2. Objectives • Terms • Structure of the Industry • Production Factors • Egg production and facts

  3. terms • Young Female= Chick or Pullet • Mature Female= Hen • Young Intact Male= Chick or Cockeral • Mature Intact Male= Rooster • Young Castrated Male= Capon

  4. Terms • Newborns= chicks • Act of giving birth= no live birth! • Meat chicken= broiler

  5. Sectors of the industry • Egg Production • Broiler Production • Raising Replacement Pullets

  6. Egg Production • Laying Hens • Confined in cages or floor pen system • Cleaning, grading, and packaging eggs occurs on farm • After production cycle, hens are sold for meat

  7. Egg production • Floor system- gather 3 times a day • Caged system- automatic egg gatherer • Rhode Island Red, Leghorns • 5-7 eggs per week • Keep hens up to 5 yrs. • Best production in first 2 years • Increase light duration and intensity for onset of egg laying

  8. Care and handling of eggs • Wash eggs • Must be clean! • Dry Cleaning vs. Egg Washing Machine • Maintain quality by • Keep cool • Keep humid • 65 Degrees F • Store separately • They absorb odors!

  9. Egg production • Do you need a rooster for a hen to lay eggs? • Nope!!! Chicks are fertilized eggs • How are eggs fertilized? • Internally before they are laid • Takes 7-10 days for sperm to travel to ovary • Lay fertile eggs for about 6-10 days

  10. Egg production • How many eggs does the average American consume per year???? • 256 eggs/year • 1945 average of 403 eggs/year…Why? • Cholesterol • Eating Habits-Breakfast anyone???? • Convenience Food

  11. Nutrition value • Two Eggs Supply • 7% of Calories (75 calories per egg) • 28% Protein • 22% Phosphorus • 10% Iron • 39% Riboflavin • 50% Vitamin B12 • 79% Vitamin A • 213 mg of Cholesterol

  12. Broiler production- Important production features • Raising chickens for meat • High quality rations fed to secure rapid efficienty gains • Weight Gain • Feed Conversion • Breast Meat Yield • Carcass Conformation • Chick Viability • Disease Resistance

  13. Broiler production • Grow in 7-9 weeks • Slaughtered at 4 lbs. • Feed Conversion 1.5:1 • Require 1 square foot

  14. Replacement Pullets • Raising chicks for egg production or broiler production

  15. Advantages to raising poultry • High feed efficiency • Fast return on investment • Low land requirements • Mechanized operation

  16. Disadvantages to raising poultry • Disease and parasites • Initial capital investment is high • Limitations of zoning • Death losses from predators and stampede • Waste disposal and odor

  17. Production/Consumption Trends • # of farms with laying hens decreased • # of chickens raised per farm  increased • Eggs-- Slight decline in popularity • Cholesterol concerns • Chicken Meat– Major increase in popularity • Perceived to have less cholesterol than beef/pork

  18. Leading States Laying Hens & Egg Production

  19. Videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8zbkkkn_PxE&feature=related • Chick Production http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aJ7rrHYmFiQ • Broiler Production

  20. POULTRY ANATOMY

  21. Poultry Equipment

  22. Beak Trimmer Trims peak Machine with foot pedal

  23. Chick Starter Feeder Feeding dish for baby chicks

  24. Chicken Feeder Feedingdish for older chicks

  25. Egg Scale Weighs and classifies eggs

  26. Leg Bands Identification tool Circular, numbered bands

  27. Open Jug Waterer Watering dish

  28. Nipple Waterer Watering device Minimizes waste

  29. 3 Tier Coop Layered chicken cages