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International Marketing
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International Marketing

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  1. International Marketing Marketing Communication

  2. The Marketing Communications Process • Encoding • Decoding • Noise • Outcome • Feedback International Marketing

  3. International Negotiations Variables of foreign behavior and customs complicate the efforts of negotiation Parochialism Stereotyping International Marketing

  4. Stages of Negotiation Process • Offer • Informal Meetings • Strategy Formulation • Negotiations • Implementation International Marketing

  5. How to Negotiate in Other Countries • Team Assistance • Traditions and Customs • Language Capability • Determination of Authority Limits • Patience • Negotiation Ethics • Silence • Persistence • Holistic View • The Meaning of Agreements International Marketing

  6. Marketing Communications Strategy • Promotional Mix • Advertising • Personal Selling • Publicity • Sales Promotion • Sponsorship • Push Strategies • Pull Strategies • Integrated Marketing Communications International Marketing

  7. Communication Tools • Business Trade Journals and Directories • Direct Marketing • Telemarketing • Database Marketing • Internet International Marketing

  8. Communications Tools Trade shows and missions Reasons for participation in trade fairs Show products first hand. Goodwill Chance to find intermediary Contact government officials and decision makers Market research and information gathering. Sales prospects for exporters International Marketing

  9. Communications Tools Trade shows and missions Reasons for non participation in trade fairs High costs Difficult to choose one. Problem with coordination Other alternatives International Marketing

  10. Exhibit 12.6 - Levels of Exporter Involvement in International Sales Personal selling International Marketing SOURCE: Framework adapted from Reijo Luostarinen and Lawrence Welch, International Operations of the Firm (Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki School of Economics, 1990), chapter 1

  11. Communications Tools International Marketing Four general guidelines to be satisfied for the marketer-intermediary interaction to work: Know the sales scene. Research the customer Work with the culture Learn from your local representatives.

  12. International Marketing Global Promotional Strategies

  13. Planning Promotional Campaigns International Marketing Determine the target audience Determine Specific Campaign Objectives Determine the budget Determine media strategy Determine the message Determine the campaign approach Determine campaign effectiveness

  14. Planning Promotional Campaigns The target audience Audience may be more than customers. Cause-related marketing Multimarket target audience similarities. Corporate image advertising Standard products International Marketing

  15. Planning Promotional Campaigns International Marketing Campaign objectives Clearly defined and measurable. Can be divided into global, regional, and local. Local input is important

  16. Planning Promotional Campaigns International Marketing Budget Links established objectives with media, message, and control decisions. May control basis of objective Set on market-by-market basis

  17. Exhibit 18.2 - Budgeting Methods for Promotional Programs International Marketing

  18. Planning Promotional Campaigns International Marketing Media strategy Availability of media Product influences Audience characteristics

  19. Exhibit 18.4 - Restrictions on Advertisements for Specific Products in Selected European Countries International Marketing

  20. Planning Promotional Campaigns International Marketing Global media Traditionally publications Dominated by major consumer ad categories Three important media characteristics Cable and Internet

  21. The Promotional Message The principles of creating effective advertising vary: -The diffusion of the product or service into the market. -The criteria on which the customer will evaluate the product. -The product's positioning. World Brand -A product that is manufactured, packaged, and positioned the same around the world. The localization of global ideas can be achieved by: -adopting a modular approach -localizing international symbols -using international advertising agencies International Marketing

  22. The Promotional Message Multiple broadcast and print ads: -provide local operations with cost savings -allow them to use budgets on tactical campaigns International Marketing

  23. The Campaign Approach Two basic decisions to make: -what type of outside services to use -how to establish decision-making autority for promotional effort Outside Services -Advertising agencies -Size: measured in terms of revenue and billings -Billings: the cost of advertising time and spance placed by the agency plus fees for certain extra services. International Marketing

  24. The Campaign Approach Agency-Client Relationship International Marketing

  25. The Campaign ApproachDecision-Making Authority International Marketing

  26. Measurement of Advertising Effectiveness Measures most used: -sales -awareness -recall -executive judgment -intention to buy -profitability -coupon return International Marketing

  27. Personal Selling (1) Prospecting (2) Communicating (3) Selling (4) Servicing (5) Information gathering (6) Allocating -Face-to-face activity; customers therefore obtain a relatively high degree of personal attention, gives the sales force chance to demonstrate the product -Foreign companies entering a market face challenges in establishing a sales force. International Marketing

  28. Sales Promotion -Activities couponing, sampling, premiums, consumer education and demonstration activities, cents-off packs, point-of-purchase materials, direct mail -Function Shorten the entry process Attract initial customers Festival reward Increase sales International Marketing

  29. Public Relations Definition - "the marketing communications function charged with executing programs to earn public understanding and acceptance" Internal Public Relations - important to create an appropriate corporate culture. - the company's public relations or advertising department produced and edited the employee publication - the employee publication provide in both hard-copy and electronic formats. International Marketing

  30. Public Relations External Public Relations -"marketing public relations", is focused on the interactions with customers. -External campaigns can be achieved through the use of corporate symbls, corporate advertising, customer relations programs, and publicity. -Proactive: marketers are concerned about establishing global identities to increase sales, differentiate products and services, and atract employees. -Publicity: the securing of editorial spance to further marketing objectives. -Reactive: anticipating and countering criticism. International Marketing

  31. Public Relations Crisis management -openness -preparedness -integrity -clarity Interactive technology -consumers can find or initiate topics of interest on the Web -engage in online discussions Consumer-Generated Media -online bulletin boards, -blogs, -podcasts, -websites International Marketing

  32. Sponsorship Marketing International Marketing -sports events and culture events UEFA European Football Championship 2012 -Adidas (German)-Spain, German, Greece, Denmark, Ukraine -Puma (German)-Italy, Czekh -Nike (US)- Poland, Holland, Protugal, Croatia, France -Umbro (UK)-Ireland, England, Sweden -Sponsorship involves the marketer's investment in events or causes -an event may become embroiled in controversy, thus hurting the sonsors' images

  33. International Marketing Questions 1. What is international media planning? What role a country’s culture play in media planning? 2. What are the various communication tools used by international marketers?