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Fall Protection. Evaluate Risk.

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Fall Protection

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    1. Fall Protection

    2. LevilleESHTraining

    3. LevilleESHTraining

    4. Evaluate Risk • Assess the workplace for fall hazards. It is important to undertake a complete risk evaluation. This evaluation can be done in the form of a job hazard analysis, where the work task is broken down into a number of distinguishable steps. The steps are then analysed to determine the hazards, assess the risk and formulate/design preventive measures to protect against the hazards. LevilleESHTraining

    5. LevilleESHTraining

    6. LevilleESHTraining

    7. Fall Protection Plan A fall protection plan must be developed prior to commencing work on the project. The plan should be documented and includes; • responsibilities of supervisors and workers on the project • erection plan and sequence of activities • fall protection methods to be used • engineering design requirements • personal protective equipment to be used LevilleESHTraining

    8. 6 ft Fall Distance Maximum Allowable Free Fall LevilleESHTraining

    9. 230 pound worker (anchorage point) Total fall Distance 4.5 feet from the anchorage point connection to the floor. 4.5 FT + 1.5 feet below floor before fall arrest must begin. Walking/Working surface 6 feet fall arrest begins here; shock absorber starts elongation at this point. There would be approx.. 2300 lb. pressure exerted on the anchorage point. Don’t forget that the type of components you use could increase the pressures exerted on the anchorage point. Anchorage strength should not be decreased below a 5,000 lb. point unless done by an Registered Professional Engineer competent in that field. + 3.5 feet elongation and arrest complete 9.5 feet Total Fall Distance 4.5 ft Stop 2.5 feet distance to the floor Fall Distance LevilleESHTraining

    10. Fall Protection Systems Employers shall provide fall protection systems on all projects, which shall include one or a combination of the following measures; • Guardrails / Barriers • Scaffolds • Elevating Work platforms • Crane supported work platforms • Safety Nets • FallArrest Systems LevilleESHTraining

    11. Guardrails and Barriers Wherever possible, physical barriers should be provided to protect workers from falling. Guardrail is a permanent or portable structural system consisting of a top rail, mid-rail and toe boardsecured to vertical posts intended to stop a worker from inadvertently stepping off a working level and falling to a level below. LevilleESHTraining

    12. Guardrails and Barriers LevilleESHTraining

    13. Scaffolds A suitable means of providing fall protection is to build a temporary floor below the working area, which will limit the fall of a worker to less than 2.5 metres. A system of scaffolding could be erected as close as possible below the working level and then moved as work proceeds to different areas of the structure. LevilleESHTraining

    14. Scaffolds LevilleESHTraining


    16. Elevating Work Platforms The use of elevating work platforms has grown in popularity as a means to provide access to steel frame structures and connecting points in the structure. This includes scissor lifts, articulating booms with work baskets, and the like. The use of these devices must be done in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations and fall protection should be worn by workers on the work platforms. LevilleESHTraining

    17. LevilleESHTraining

    18. LevilleESHTraining

    19. Elevating Work Platforms LevilleESHTraining

    20. Crane Supported Work Platform • In some cases, the most practicable and safest way to reach a location is by a crane supported work basket. These baskets must be designed and approved by a professional engineer and rigged in a manner to provide worker fall protection. An independent lifeline must be secured above the main load hook, unless the basket is provided with a 'double suspension' system, where, if there is one suspension failure, the work basket will remain supported. The workers should then be tied back to the work basket itself. LevilleESHTraining

    21. LevilleESHTraining

    22. LevilleESHTraining

    23. Safety Nets • Safety nets may be used where it is difficult or impossible to arrange for fixed barriers or to provide a proper anchoring and lifeline system for fall arrest. Safety nets present some problems; the erection of the nets may be hazardous, and the nets tend to capture materials that fall from the working surface. Safety nets shall be designed, installed, tested and maintained in accordance with ANSI Standard A10.11. The net shall be installed so that it extends 2.5 metres (8 feet) beyond the edge of the work area and not further than 7.7 metres (25 feet) below the working surface. LevilleESHTraining

    24. Safety Nets • Safety nets must be installed as close as practicable under the walking/working surface on which employees are working and never more than 30 feet (9.1 meters) below such levels. • Defective nets shall not be used. • Safety nets shall be inspected at least once a week for wear, damage, and other deterioration. • The maximum size of each safety net mesh opening shall not exceed 36 square inches (230 square centimeters) nor be longer than 6 inches (15 centimeters) on any side, and the openings, measured center-to-center, of mesh ropes or webbing, shall not exceed 6 inches (15 centimeters). LevilleESHTraining

    25. Safety Nets • All mesh crossings shall be secured to prevent enlargement of the mesh opening. Each safety net or section shall have a border rope for webbing with a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kilonewtons). • Connections between safety net panels shall be as strong as integral net components and be spaced no more than 6 inches (15 centimeters) apart. LevilleESHTraining

    26. Safety Nets • Safety nets shall be capable of absorbing an impact force of a drop test consisting of a 400-pound (180 kilograms) bag of sand 30 inches (76 centimeters) in diameter dropped from the highest walking/working surface at which workers are exposed, but not from less than 42 inches (1.1 meters) above that level. LevilleESHTraining

    27. LevilleESHTraining

    28. Fall Arrest System A fall arrest system for steel erection shall consist of the following components; • anchorage point • lifeline • fall arrestor (rope grab) • lanyard • shock absorber • full body harness. LevilleESHTraining

    29. LevilleESHTraining

    30. Fall Arrest System The general principle for a fall arrest system is that a worker shall be connected at all times to the system when undertaking steel erection where no other fall protection system has been provided. This may mean that workers will be equipped with a double lanyard system, to allow security at all times when moving from one system to another. Fall arrest systems should be designed to restrict a worker’s fall to about 1 meter, as well as maintaining suitable clearance in the event of a fall. LevilleESHTraining

    31. Fall Arrest System Anchorage point • This component of the fall arrest system will vary depending on the situation. • Anchorage points can be fashioned on site or provided for steel beams and columns prior to delivery of the material to the site. • They may consist of rated eyebolts, drilled holes, welded or bolted steel plates, beam clamps, or other devices designed to carry the design load for the fall arrest application. • The anchor attachment point should not be the connection bolt holes, it should be a separate anchor system. • They may be designed for vertical or horizontal lifeline orientation, and must be capable of carrying the design impact load 5,000 pounds (22.2 kilonewtons) per person attached. LevilleESHTraining

    32. Fall Arrest System Lifelines • Lifelines must have a minimum strength equivalent to 60mm (5/8 inch") diameter polypropylene fiber rope, and should contain ultraviolet inhibitors to prolong the outdoor life of the material. • Lifelines must be properly secured to the anchorage point and be protected from abrasion or damage along their full length. Lifelines may run vertically or horizontally (installed between two or more anchors), depending on the application. LevilleESHTraining

    33. Fall Arrest System Vertical Lifeline • A vertical lifeline must be positively secured to an appropriate anchoring point as described previously. It may consist of a single line secured to a column or overhead beam to which the worker attaches a fall arrestor, or a retractable block device with a lifeline that automatically reels in and out, but engages when a slip or fall occurs. • Only one worker may be connected to each independent vertical lifeline. LevilleESHTraining

    34. BEAM CLAMP WIRE ROPE, 5/8” dia. or NYLINE ROPE, 16mm EYEBOLT 5/8” dia. LevilleESHTraining

    35. LevilleESHTraining

    36. Fall Arrest System Horizontal Lifelines • Horizontal lifelines may be fixed to columns or beams, but the system must be designed by a professional engineer and a prototype tested to ensure that it is capable of supporting the same impact load as a fixed anchor. A standardised horizontal fall arrest system may be utilised at different project sites, subject to the design criteria of the professional engineer. LevilleESHTraining

    37. Maximum Length 9m LevilleESHTraining

    38. Fall Arrest System Horizontal Lifelines • If more than one worker is to be secured to the same static horizontal line, this must be approved by the design engineer. • Some considerations when designing a horizontal static lifeline system include; • Minimum ½" improved flow steel wire rope for static line • Maximum distance between vertical supports of 30’ (9m) • Maximum sag of 15" between supports for a 30’ (9m) span • Use an approved energy absorber at the ends of the horizontal line to reduce anchor forces. LevilleESHTraining

    39. Maximum Length 9m Maximum Sag 15” LevilleESHTraining

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    42. Fall Arrest System Fall Arrestor/Rope Grab • This is a device that automatically locks onto the lifeline when a fall occurs. It is fitted between the lifeline and lanyard and normally slides freely on the lifeline until there is a sudden downward motion. When this sudden motion occurs, the fall arrestor "grabs" the lifeline and holds firmly. Fall arresting mechanisms are also built into retractable lifeline devices, that play out and retract as necessary, but hold fast in the event of a fall. LevilleESHTraining

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    45. Fall Arrest System Lanyard • A lanyard is an approved device located between the fall arrestor and the worker's safety harness. Lanyards should conform to CSA Z259.1-95 " Safety Belts and Lanyards“ • Lanyards must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kilonewtons). LevilleESHTraining

    46. Fall Arrest System Positioning Device Systems • These body harness systems are to be set up so that a worker can free fall no farther than 2 feet (0.6 meters). They shall be secured to an anchorage capable of supporting at least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall or 3,000 pounds (13.3 kilonewtons), whichever is greater. Requirements for snaphooks, dee-rings, and other connectors used with positioning device systems must meet the same criteria as those for personal fall arrest systems. LevilleESHTraining

    47. Positioning Device Systems LevilleESHTraining

    48. Fall Arrest System Shock Absorber • A device that limits the force applied to the user when a fall occurs. • It is designed to absorb the kinetic energy of the fall as the worker is stopped. • The shock absorber prevents both injury to the worker and the amount of force transferred to the lifeline and anchor. • Shock absorbing mechanisms are available either incorporated into the lanyard or as an add-on and are recommended to be used to lessen the shock to the worker. • Shock absorbers should conform to CSA Z259.11-M92 "Shock Absorbers for Personal Fall Arrest Systems" LevilleESHTraining

    49. Shock Absorber LevilleESHTraining

    50. Fall Arrest System Full Body Harness • This is a device designed to contain the torso and pelvic area of a worker and to support the worker during and after a fall. A full-body safety harness conforming to Canadian Standards Association CSA-Z259.10-M90 "Full Body Harnesses" is the type to be used for a fall arrest system. LevilleESHTraining